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Immunologic Health

Immunologic Health Deviations

QuestionAnswer
Maternal T cells Do not cross placenta but fetus can develop own using their thymus during gestation.
Cellular Immunity is medicated by what cells? T Cells
During anaphylaxis an example of a cutaneous symptom would be... Urticaria
What is Urticaria? Hives
What spots are most commonly seen with measels? Koplik's
Inflammation of the ovaries in a child with mumps is called what? Oophoritis
When are T-cells functional in babies? At birth.
Facts about Cellular Immunity Cell-mediated immune response; lymphocytes: T-Cells (which are generally functional at birth); and do not recognize antigens.
Facts about Humoral Immunity Antibody protection; Lymphocytes: B-Cells (which develop over time); and recognize antigens.
How do the lymph system and spleen work in regards to immunity? They passivley filter plasma for bacteria or foreign material.
Phagocytosis Passivley waiting for virus.
Which cells do NOT respond as well as adults to infection? Infant B Cells.
What are common treatments for the Immune System? Immunizations, Bone marrow transplant and stem cell transplant.
What reaction do immunizations have on our bodies? They cause our immune systems to develop antibodies to specific microorganisms without developing the disease.
What effect does a bone marrow transplant have on our immune systems? Causes transplanted cells to develop into functional B and T cells.
Common Nursing Diagnosis related to the Immune System Deficient knowledge r/t lack of exposure; Risk for infection r/t inadequate acquired immunity, immunisuppression or inadequate secondary defense; Risk for injury r/t abnormal blood profile or immune-autoimmune dysfunction.
Common Immunizations Measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, varicella.
What is a food allergy? An immunologic reaction resulting from the ingestion of a food or food additive.
What type of response is a food allergy? IgE-mediated response.
What percentage of children are affected by food allergies? 2%-8%
What are the most common food allergies in the first years of life that persist into adulthood? Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shell fish.
How long does it take for a food allergy reaction to occur? Reaction can occur within minutes or up to two hours after exposure.
What are some common food allergy reaction signs and symptoms? Hives, flushing, facial swelling, mouth and throat itching, runny nose, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, swelling of tongue uvula pharynx or upper airway, and wheezing.
What medications can be used to treat a food allergy? Antihistamines and Epinephrine.
What can help in the prevention of developing food allergies? Breastfeeding until 6 months of age and avoiding commom food allergens in children younger than 1 year.
What is Anaphylaxis? An acute IgE-mediated response to an allergen that involves many organ systems and may be life-threatening.
What are the most common allergens that cause an anaphylaxis response? Nuts, shellfish, eggs, bee or wasp stings, penicillin, NSAIDS, radiopaque dyes and latex.
What type of medications can prevent a late onset anaphylactic reaction? Corticosteroids.
If someone is having an Anaphylaxis reaction, which medications should be given? Epinephrine (1st) and then diphenhydramine (2nd).
How is measles spread? It is a virus that is spread through direct of indirect contact with secretions and droplet transmission.
What are the clinical manifestations of measles? Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, Koplik's spots, Rash.
What are Koplik's spot? Bright red spots with blue/white centers; can appear on on mucous membranes.
What are treatments for measles? Supportive care and Vitamin A supplementation in children 6 months-2 years.
What complications can arise from Measles? Otitis media, croup, pneumonia, diarrhea and/or acute encephalitis.
How can the mumps be spread? By secretion and droplet transmission.
What are the clinical manifestations of the Rubella? Lymphadenopathy, rash, mild pruritis, polyarthralgia, polyarthritis.
Who can the live vaccine for mumps NOT be given to? Pregnant women.
What are the clinical manifestations of mumps? Fever, parotitis, orchitis, oophoritis.
What is therapeutic management for mumps? Supportive, administer medications to treat fever and/or pain, fluids, ice packs to testicles if orchitis is present and support to testicles.
What is Rubella also known as? German Measles.
What are complications of rubella? Enchephalitis, thrombocytopenia, maternal rubella during pregnancy.
What effects can rubella have on a pregnancy? Can cause the pregnancy to result in miscarriage, fetal death and/or congenital malformations.
What is Pertussis? An acute respiratory disorder characterized by a paroxysmal cough (whooping cough), and copious secretions.
What are the clinical manifestations of Pertussis? Cold symptoms usually last 7-10 days; proxysmal coughing spells.
What is therapeutic management of Pertussis? Respiratory support and treatment of bacterial infection (antimicrobial treatment).
What is the source of Varicella? Respiratory tract and skin lesions.
How is Varicella transmitted? Direct contact, droplet spread, airborne and contaminated objects.
What are the clinical manifestations of Varicella? Fever, malaise, anorexia, headache, rash.
What is usually the first sign of Varicella in children? Rash-lesions will appear on their scalp, trunk and face.
When is Varicella no longer contagious? When the vesicles errupt and the lesions scab over.
What are complications that can arise from Varicella? Bacterial super infection of skin lesions, thrombocytopenia, meningitis, encephalitis.
Created by: nglidden