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Hematological Health

Hematological Health Deviations

Erythrocytes are responsible for transporting oxygen to body tissues: T or F True
Erythrocytes are... Red Blood Cells
Where do all blood cells originate from? Single multipotent stem cell
What disease is treated with Factor VIII and/or fresh frozen plasma? Hemophilia
Sickle Cell Disease refers to what group of hemoglobinopathies? Inherited (Has chromosomal link)
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura is thought to be an immune response following a viral infection that produces what antibodies? Antiplatelet
What is an example of an Antineoplastic Agent? Mustargen
A Lumbar puncture in regards to (ALL) is looking for Reed-Sternberg cells in the CNS? T or F False
Which lymphoma affects lymph nodes deeper in the body? Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
What are responsible for transporting nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues and waste products from the tissues? Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBC)
What are thrombocytes or platelets responsible for? Clotting
What are leukocytes or white blood cells responsible for? Fighting infections.
What are the types of WBCs? Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes).
What does hemoglobin do? Carries O2
What is Hematocrit? % of while RBC
What is a retic count? How fast RBCs are being made.
What does low H&H cause? Fatigue
What is plasma? Fluid that blood travels in.
Why would you give a patient plasma? To help with clotting.
If someone has low hemoglobin what should you do first? Administer Oxygen.
Common Nursing Diagnosis Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements; Risk for Infection; Fatigue; Anxiety; Decisional Conflict.
What is Factor VIII used to treat? Hemophilia
What makes up "whole blood"? RBCs & WBCs
What medical treatment would be required for someone with thrombocytopenia? Platelet transfusion.
What disease is whole blood used for? Sickle Cell Disease
What disease may require fresh frozen plasma? Hemophilia
What does a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation consist of? Putting stem cells directly into bone marrow or into the circulatory system.
What body organ puts out Sickle Cells? The Splene.
In what nationalities is Sickle Cell Disease most common? African American, Inidian, Asian Americans and Hispanics.
How does Sickle Cell Disease start? Starts with an illness and dehydration which then causes the sickle cell crisis.
What are the top nursing interventions for Sickle Cell Disease? Administer a hypotonic solution (this will force cells to absorb fluid); Treat patient's pain; administer oxygen and send for lab work.
What are common complications of Sickle Cell Disease? Vaso-occlusive pain crisis (caused by the blood being stuck in the vascular system); Stroke; Acute chest syndrome (Infection or hypovelemic shock, heart can't pump sickle cells); and Splenic sequestration.
What does "sickling" cause? Hypoxia and tissue ischemia to most areas of the body.
What is Idiopathic Thromboocytopenic Purpura? Immune response following a viral infection that produces antiplatelet antibodies.
What is Petechiae? Head-to-toe pinpoint hemorrhages (look like pinpoint bruises)
What is Purpura? Large areas of bruising (hemorrhages).
What are some common complications of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura? Severe hemorrhage, bleeding into vital organs and intracranial hemorrhage.
What types of medications should patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia avoid and why? Aspirin, NSAIDS and antihistamines because they participate in the development of anemia.
How low is the platelet count before a transfusion is done? Usually <50,000.
What would be some common findings in a patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia? Epistaxis (bloody nose), bleeding gums, increased bruising, and rapid progression of petechiae, purpura or bruising within 24-48 hours.
Where might petechiae first develope? Lips and buccal mucosa.
What is Hemophilia A? X-linked recessive disorder that results in the deficiency of factor VIII.
What should kids with hemophilia receive before any procedure and why? Factor VIII because they are high bleed risks.
What happens to someone with Hemophilia when bleeding occurs? Their vessels constrict and a platelet plug forms, but because they are deficient of Factor VIII the fibrin will not solidify so the bleeding continues.
What is a common complication of patient's with hemophilia? Hemorrhage.
What will a hemophiac's lab results show? Decreased HgB, Hct and decreased factor levels.
What are some common findings in people with hemophilia? Black tarry stools (lower GI bleed), epistaxis, hypovolemia, bruising, petechia, active bleeding site, limited ROM.
What do pediatric cancers usually arise from? Primitive embryonal (mesodermal) and neuroectodermal tissues.
What are the types of pediatric cancers? Leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas or central nervous system tumors.
What do Adult cancers usually arise from? Epithelial cells that usually result in carcinomas.
Are adult or childhood cancers blood born? Childhood.
what are the two types of Leukemia classifications? Acute and Chronic.
Acute Leukemia Rapidly progressive disease that effects immature cells; the result is cells without normal function.
Chronic Leukemia Progresses more slowly permitting the maturing of cells, which enables the cells to retain some of their normal function.
What are some signs that a child may have leukemia? The child may not be hitting growth marks, may have trouble seeing, and may have problems with their thyroid.
What are the types of therapeutic management used for leukemia? Radiation, chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
How is it determined as to what type of leukemia a child has? Type depends on what blood cell is being effected.
What is the most common form of cancer in children? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
What is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? Abnormal proliferation of the WBCs involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood.
What different types of cells can be involved in determining the classification of ALL? T cell, B cell, Early pre-B cell, Pre-B cell.
What type of cancer is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? Blood born cancer.
What are complications of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? Fatigue, Weight loss, Growth arrest, Anemia, Neutropenia, Thrombocytopenia, bone and joint pain and CNS involvement.
What are the CNS ailments associated with ALL? Headache, vomiting, seizures, coma, vision alterations, cranial nerve palsies.
What gender and age group is at highest risk for ALL? Boys between the ages of 2 and 5.
What are some common findings in patients with ALL? Fever, bone pain, N/V, recurrent infections, unusual bleeding/bruising, pallor, fatigue and headache.
What should be the focus for nursing management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? Focus should be on managing disease complications such as infection, pain, bleeding, anemia and adverse effects of chemotherapy.
What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia? Blood born cancer that originates in the bone marrow. It is the abnormal proliferation of immature WBCs in the bone marrow.
When abnormal WBCs replace normal WBCs, what is the result? Anemia, infection and even death.
What is the second most common type of leukemia in children? Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML).
How is AML classified? By the myeloid lineage involved and the degree of cell differentiation (M0-M7).
How is AML diagnosed? By bone marrow aspiration (looking for 20% or more "blasts").
What are common complications of AML? Treatment resistance, infection, hemorrhage, metastisis (easily).
What treatment is most effective for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia? Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
What type of cancer is a common SECONDARY cancer? Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
What are common findings in patients with Myelogenous Leukemia? Pallor, salmon or blue-gray colored popular lesions, palpation of subcutaneous rubbery modules (hard), headache, visual disturbances, S/S of increased intracranial pressure, fever.
What do benign enlarged lymph nodes indicate in children? The building up of their immune system.
What are lymphomas? Tumors of the lymph tissue (lymph nodes, thymus, spleen).
What are the two catagories of lymphomas? Hodgkins and Non-Hodgkins.
What cells are specific to non-hodgkins lymphoma? B and T Cells.
What lymph nodes does Hodgkin's Lymphoma affect? Affects lymph nodes closer to the body's surface.
What lymph nodes does non-hodgkins affect? Affects lymph nodes deeper in the body.
What cells are affected in Hodgkins Lymphoma? B
What are the two classifications of Hodgkin's Lymphoma? A (asymptomatic) and B (symptomatic)
List symptoms of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Weight Loss, Night sweats and fever.
Therapeutic Management of Non-Hodgkin's. Aggressive chemotherapy at time of dx; maintenance chemotherapy lasting 2 years; CNS prophylaxis chemotherapy.
How is Non-Hodgkins Diagnosed? CT Scan, Chest radiography, Bone marrow biopsy, lymph node biopsy.
Which childhood cancer is usually "silent" in children until weeks or even days before diagnosis? Non-hodgkin Lymphoma.
What are some adverse affects of chemotherapy? Infection, Hemorrhage, anemia, N/V, anorexia and alopecia.
What normally brings patient's in who may have Non-hodgkins? Severe Respiratory Distress.
Created by: nglidden
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