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Adult Hlth 2 Test 3

Cancer

QuestionAnswer
T/F This year (2000), about 552,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer, more than 1500 people a day? TRUE
Cancer is the ____ leading cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease? second
In the US, 1 of 4 deaths is from ____? cancer.
T/F Nearly five million lives have been lost to cancer since 1990. In 2000, about 1,220,100 new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed? TRUE
5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined is ____%? 59%
The seven warning signs of cancer has an acronym to remember them. What is it? CAUTION
C in the word caution stands for? change in bowel or bladder habits
A in the word caution stands for? A sore that does not heal
U in the word caution stands for? Unusual bleeding or discharge
T in the word caution stands for? Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I in the word caution stands for? Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
O in the word caution stands for? Obvious change in wart or mole
N in the word caution stands for? Nagging cough or hoarseness
What is carcinogenesis? Cancer development
What is metastasis? Cells move from the primary location.
The following are all classifications for ____: Cell division is rapid or continuous; Appearance: Anaplastic; Nucleus is large; Migratory & invasive; Chromosomes: May or may not have 23; & Loosely adherent? Cancer
Anaplastic means? anaplastic means they show no specific morphological features. They don’t look like a particular type of cell.
How do you classify different CA cells? CA cells are classified by a grading scale. It classifies cellular aspects of cancer cells & talks about how different the CA is from original tissue, from “low grade” it closely resembles the original tissue to “High grade” or very abnormal.
Breast CA common sites of metastasis is? Bone*, lung*, liver, brain
Prostate CA common sites of metastasis is? bone (especially spine & legs)*; pelvic nodes
Lung CA common sites of metastasis is? Brain*; bone; liver; lymph nodes; pancreas
Melanoma common sites of metastasis is? GI tract; Lymph nodes; lung; brain
Colorectal CA common sites of metastasis is? Liver*, Lymph nodes; adjacent structures
Primary brain CA common sites of metastasis is? Central Nervous system
What is the grading scale Gx, G1-4? Grading scale: Gx- not determined; G1: well differentiated; G2 Moderately differentiated; G3 Poorly differentiated original cell can still be identified; G4 Poorly differentiated and retain no normal cell characteristics
Staging is used to determine ? - How far has CA has spread.
Staging ranges from ___ up to ____ when it has spread to distant sites in the body? Range from stage 0 (in situ) up to stage IV when it has spread to distant sites in the body.
What does TNM stand for? TNM: tumor, node, metastasis.
Stage 0 of cancer is known as? carcinoma in situ
______ is very early cancer and the abnormal cells are found only in the first layer of cells of the primary site and do not invade the deeper tissues? Carcinoma in situ
In what stages does cancer involve the primary site, but has not spread to nearby tissues? Stage I
Stage ____ of CA: a very small amount of CA- visible under a microscope-is found deeper in the tissues? Stage IA
stage ___ of CA: a larger amount of cancer is found in the tissues? Stage IB
Stage ___: CA has spread to nearby areas but is still inside the primary site? Stage II
Stage ___: CA has spread beyond the primary site? stage IIA: cancer has spread beyond the primary site
Stage ___: CA has spread to other tissue around the primary site? stage IIB: cancer has spread to other tissue around the primary site.
Stage ___: CA has spread throughout the nearby area? Stage III-Cancer has spread throughout the nearby area.
Stage ____: CA has spread to other parts of the body? Stage IV-Cancer has spread to other parts of the body
Stage ____: CA has spread to organs close to the pelvic area? stage IVA: cancer has spread to organs close to the pelvic area
Stage ___: CA has spread to distant organs, such as the lungs? stage IVB: cancer has spread to distant organs, such as the lungs
What does recurrent CA mean? Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come back (recurred) after it has been treated.
Lung; Colorectal; Pancreas; Bladder; Testicular; Gynecologic: ovary, cervix, & endometrial; Breast; Lymphoma are all selected ____ CA? Selected Adult CA
T/F Breast Cancer 32% in Females and Prostate CA 33% in males are the highest % of new CA Cases? true
T/F Lung->Prostate/Breast CA->Colorectal-> Pancreas->ovary->Lymphoma->Leukemia is the breakdown statistics of the highest % to the lowest % of CA deaths? True
What are the 4 major types of Lung Cancer? Four major types: Small cell carcinoma (oat cell); Adenocarcinoma; Squamous cell; (non-small cell); Large cell
____ cancer leading cause of Cancer death among Americans? Lung
Tobacco smoking; Asbestos; Cancer-causing agents in workplace; Miners; Exposure to chemicals; Marijuana; Recurring inflammation are all risk factors for ? Lung Cancer Risk Factors
What % of CA are found in early stages and how are many diagnosed? Lung Cancer Early Detection; 15% found in early stages; Many diagnosed incidentally
Where are the common sites for metastasis? Brain; Bone; Liver; Lymph nodes; Pancreas
In the early stages of cancer there are no ___? No symptoms in early stages of cancer
Cough that does not go away; Chest pain - Worse with deep breathing; Hoarseness; Bloody or; rust-colored sputum; Shortness of breath; Fever of unknown origin; Recurring infection (bronchitis or pneumonia) are all SS of ___? Lung CA
H &P; Sputum cytology; Chest x-ray; CT scan/MRI; Needle biopsy; Bronchoscopy; Mediastinoscopy are all diagnostic test for ___? Lung CA
Medical; Chemotherapy & radiation; surgical; pulmonary resection lobectomy; pneumonectomy; and laser surgery are all ____ treatments? lung cancer treatments
Skills; O2 therapy; post-op care; positioning-Simi-fowlers; & side-to-side are all nursing care required for what type of pt? lung CA pt
Respiratory rate, quality, O2 sat; Respiratory; Blood gases; Breath sounds; Chest tube; Placement; drainage; drainage system function; Use of incentive spirometer are all assessments and nursing interventions for ? lung cancer
What types of pain management are given for lung cancer pts? Analgesics; PCA; Epidural; Oral; Wound splinting; Stabilizing chest tubes with activity; Wound care
Colectoral cancer is usually ___ types of CA? adenocarcinomas
Most tumors are found in distal portion of large bowel, from the sigmoid colon to anus in what type of CA? Colectoral cancer
Approximately one half of all colon cancers occur in the ____? rectosigmoid area.
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the transverse colon? Transverse colon M 11% F 13%
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the ascending colon? Ascending colon M 22% F 27%
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the descending colon? Descending colon 6%
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the cecum colon? Cecum M 11% F10%
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the Rectum colon? Rectum M22% F27%
What % of Men and Females have corectoral cancer in the sigmoid colon? Sigmoid colon M 25% F 23%
Pain, obstruction, change in bowel habits & anemia are SS of colorectal cancer located in the? Transverse colon – Pain, obstruction, change in bowel habits, anemia
Pain, mass, change in bowel habits, anemia are SS of colorectal CA located in the? Ascending colon – Pain, mass, change in bowel habits, anemia
Pain, change in bowel habits, bright red blood in stool, obstruction are SS of colorectal CA located in the? Descending colon – Pain, change in bowel habits, bright red blood in stool, obstruction
Blood in stool, change in bowel habits, & rectal discomfort are SS of colorectal CA located in the? Rectum – Blood in stool, change in bowel habits, rectal discomfort
What are the colorectal risk factors? Family Hx; Personal Hx of:Colorectal CA, Intestinal polyps, Chronic inflammatory bowel disease; Aging; Diet primarily from animal sources; Physical inactivity
Digital rectal exam; Fecal occult blood test; Sigmoidoscopy; Colonoscopy; Barium enema with air contrast; Colorectal CA Diagnosis; Sigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy; Barium enema with air contrast; Rectal ultrasound; CT scan; MRI; Biopsy are all early dete Colorectal CA
prep-cleansing of bowel; conscious sedation; no driving for 24 hrs; barium enema; & prep-cleansing of bowel are all given to the pt prior to a ___? colonoscopy
Post care (remove barium) & give constipation (laxative) to a pt that has had a ____? Colonoscopy
Change in bowel habits; Feeling need to have BM that is not relieved by doing so Rectal bleeding or blood in stool; Cramping or steady abdominal pain; Decreased appetite; Weakness & fatigue; Jaundice are all SS of ___? Colorectal CA
What should you do for early detection of colorectal CA? follow American Cancer Society screening guidelines
Beginning at age 50, both men & women should follow 1 of 3 options. What are they? Yearly fecal occult blood + flexible signmoidoscopy every 5 years or Colonoscopy every 10 years or Double contrast barium enema every 5-10 years
What is the treatment for colorectal CA? Surgery main treatment; segmental resection; colostomy may be needed; temporary; permanent; Radiation; Chemotherapy
What are the TNM Staging at DX and Survival Rates? Localized 37% of patients – 89.7% 5 yr survival; Regional 38% of patients – 64.4% 5 yr survival; Distant 20% of patients – 8.3% 5 yr survival; Unstaged 6% of patients – 34.9% 5 yr survival (MORE LOCALIZED Higher survival rate)
Wound heals by ____ intention? secondary intention
Pts with Colorectal CA should avoid __ & ___ forming foods? odor and gas forming foods
What types of odor foods should colorectal pts avoid? odor- cabbage, eggs, beans, fish, onions
What types of gas foods should colorectal pts avoid? gas -beer, broccoli, cabbage, dairy products
What are some Nursing interventions for pts with colorectal CA/colostomy? Body Image Change; Support group (Ostomy club); Altered Sexuality
What are liver Cancer Stastics? 2007 US estimates: New cases: 19,160; Deaths: 16,780
Prognosis of liver CA depends on? Prognosis depends on the amount of liver tissue replaced and the level of liver function impairment.
What are liver cancer risk factors? 5% of patients with cirrhosis eventually develop hepatocellular cancer; Exposure to hepatotoxins such as vinyl chloride or aflatoxin; Hepatitis B and C
In ___ CA the symptoms are usually “silent” until well progressed Liver CA
Loss of appetite & wt loss; bloated abdomen; N & V; Fever, weakness or fatigue; jaundice & dark urine are all symptoms of ____ CA? Liver CA
What are the 5 yr survival rate of liver CA based on stage? 19% if localized to the liver; 6.6%if regional: lymph nodes or just beyond the primary site; 3.4% for metastatic disease; 3.3% for unstageable disease.
What are nursing concerns for liver CA? Assist with treatments: surgery, chemotherapy or radiation; Pain relief: especially positioning if they develop ascites; Avoid hepato-toxic drugs; Encephalopathy: assess mental status; Skin care: Jaundice leads to itching.
Where does the cancer in the pancreas occur? 90% duct cell adenocarcinomas; 75% occur in pancreatic head; 25% occur in pancreatic tail
___ has a poor prognosis: 90% patients die within 1 yr of diagnosis? Pancreatic CA
What are the risk factors for pancreas CA? Age, gender & race: Over 50, male; Cigarette smoking; Diet: High fat, meats, low in fiber; Chronic pancreatitis; Family history; Currently no tests are available for early detection
T/F CA 19-9 tumor marker is elevated in late stage? True
Jaundice; clay colored stools, dark urine; Abdominal pain; digestive problems; gallbladder enlargement; & wt loss (late) are all S&S of ___ CA? pancreatic CA
H & P; CT scan or MRI; Ultrasound; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); Liver function tests; Biopsy are all ____ CA diagnosis? pancreatic CA diagnosis
How do you treat pancreas CA? Potentially curative surgery; Distal or total pancreatectomy ; Whipple procedure; Palliative procedures; Stent or surgery to relieve blockage of common bile duct; Chemotherapy; Gemcitabine or fluorouracil (5-FU)
What is the nursing care needed for pancreas CA? Post op: Pain; Analgesics - IV or Epidural; Wound; Assess wound; Assess drainage, amount and color; Teaching ( based on extent of surgery); Diet, activity, wound healing, pain management
What is the nursing care needed for non surgical pancreas CA care? Pain(difficult to manage); Opioids; PO, transdermal; Celiac plexus block; Antiemetics ; Nutrition; Consult with Dietitians; Treat anorexia, indigestion and weight loss.
What is the Most commonly bladder CA growth and where does it grow? Most commonly papillomatous growths in bladder urothelium
Papillomatous growths in the bladder urothelium may infiltrate what? May infiltrate bladder wall
Bladder Cancer is the most frequent ___ of urinary tract? Most frequent neoplasm of urinary tract
What are the risk factors of bladder CA? Smoking; Occupational exposure; Race; Increasing age; Personal history of bladder CA; Birth defects involving bladder
What are the benefits of early detection of bladder ca? Screening for persons at high risk; urine cytology; cystoscopy;urinary tract radiographic imaging (x-rays) the benefits is early detection
What is the diagnosis for bladder ca? H & P; Urine culture & urine cytology; Bladder tumor marker studies; Cystoscopy; Intravenous pyelogram (IVP); Biopsy
What is the treatment for bladder Ca? Surgery; Tumor excision(limited to mucosa);Tumor excision plus chemotherapy; M-VAC and MCV; Cystectomy; Radiation and chemotherapy
What is the leading cancer in new cases? Prostate Cancer
Prostate CA grows fast/slow? Grows very slowly
What is the 5 yr survival rate of prostate cancer if not spread beyond the prostate gland? If not spread beyond prostate gland, five-year relative survival rate 100%, whether treated or not; Related to male hormones, but exact mechanism unclear
What are the risk factors for prostate ca? Age; Race; Family history; Nationality; Diet; Physical inactivity
What are two test that are used for early detection of Prostate CA? Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) & Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) yearly
At what age should men start getting tested for Prostate CA? Age 50
At what age should a man that is at HIGH RISK for Prostate CA start getting tested? Age 45 (high risk)
Who are some high risk men for prostate cancer? High risk men such as those with strong familial predisposition or African Americans.
What are some of the test/procedures that can diagnose prostate CA? PSA & DRE; Prostate biopsy; Transrectal ultrasound
How do you treat prostate ca? Surgery; Radical prostatectomy; Transurethral resection of prostate; Cryosurgery; Radiation; Hormone therapy; Expectant therapy; Chemotherapy (minimal effective)
What is the treatment SE of prostate cancer? Incontinence; Impotence; Reduced or absent sexual drive (orchiectomy & LHRH androgens); Hot flashes, breast tenderness & growth of breast tissue (LHRH androgens)
What are the kinds of Gynecological CA? Ovarian CA; Endometrial CA; & Cervical CA
What type of cancer is the leading cause of death from reproductive malignancies? Ovarian CA
~ 25% found of ____ CA is found at early stage? (Hint leading cause of reproductive malignancies) Ovarian Cancer
When ___ CA is localized, 90% live longer than 5 years after diagnosis? Ovarian CA
At what stage in women is gynecological CA most common? common after menopause
What are the gynecological CA risk factors? Ovarian; Age; Fertility drugs; Reproductive Hx; Diet; Family Hx; Breast CA; Endometrial; Early menarche or late menopause; Obesity; diet high in animal fat; Tamoxifen…
Estrogen replacement therapy; Other reproductive CA; Other: age, race, SES, family Hx, pelvic radiation ; Cervical CA; Age; Black & Native American; Prostitution; Low SES; Reproductive Hx; Postpartum lacerations are all risk factors for ____? gynecological CA
What are the benefits of early detection of gynecological CA? Seek prompt medical attention for symptoms!
When should routine pelvic & PAP exams start? Routine pelvic & PAP exams starting at age 18 or when becomes sexually active (yearly)
Are there any blood test or imaging studies recommended for gynecological CA? No blood tests or imaging studies recommended
What are the S&S of gynecological CA? Unusual vaginal bleeding/discharge; Sore that does not heal; Pain/pressure in pelvic area; Persistent change bowel/bladder habits; frequent indigestion/abs bloating; Thickening or lump that causes pain/can be felt
90% of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer have complained of ___ or ____? 90% of pt diagnosed with endometrial CA have complained of post-menopausal bleeding or irregular vaginal bleeding.
Prolonged swelling of abdomen may be due to a ___ or ____? mass or accumulation of fluid.
Digestive problems with ____ CA may include gas, loss of appetite, bloating, long-term stomach pain, or indigestion? gynecological CA
In gynecological CA a person might have pelvic pressure which is a feeling as …? Pelvic pressure (feeling as though you have to urinate or defecate all the time).
What is the diagnosis or tests for gynedological CA? Referral to gynecologic oncologist; H & P; CT, MRI, or ultrasound; Biopsy; To detect spread; CA-125; Cystoscopy & proctoscopy
What are the problems of diagnosis with ovarian ca? Difficult to obtain early diagnosis; Signs are vague: GI discomfort, etc.
What is the Gynecological CA: Treatment? Extent of surgery depends on location & how far CA has spread; Hormone therapy (endometrial); Internal radiation (endometrial)
____ therapy uses drugs such as ____ to slow the growth of endometrial CA cells? Hormone therapy uses drugs such as progesterone to slow the growth of endometrial CA cells.
What is the Nursing care for: GYN Cancer? Internal radiation; Brachytherapy; Patient is radioactive during treatment; Time, Distance, Shielding; External radiation; Skin Care; Side effects results due to site and dose
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma; Medullary carcinoma; Infiltrating lobular carcinoma are all types of what? Breast CA
What % of Breast CA is Infiltrating ductal carcinoma? Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (70-80%)
What % of Breast CA is medullary carcinoma? Medullary carcinoma (5-7%)
What % of Breast CA is Infiltrating lobular carcinoma? Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (5-10%)
What is the 2nd leading cause of death in women? Breast CA: Mortality rates declined significantly during 1991-95
What are the NON-modifiable risk factors of Breast CA? Gender; Aging; Genetic; Family/personal history; Race; Previous breast biopsy/irradiation
What are some Lifestyle related risk factors of Breast CA? Oral contraceptives; Not having children; Estrogen replacement therapy; Alcohol & smoking; Obesity & high fat diets
What are Breast CA: Early Detection? Screening mammogram; ACS protocol; Breast self-examination; Breast clinical physical examination
At what age should mammogram screenings start at? Women age 40 & older should have a screening mammogram every year.
What are the S&S of breast ca? None; Painless mass or lump; Nipple discharge; Dimpling of skin; Change in breast contour
How do you diagnosis breast ca? Mammography; Breast ultrasound; Ductogram; Nipple discharge examination; Biopsy
What are the treatments for breast ca? Surgical options; Chemotherapy & radiation; Hormone therapy; Estrogen/Progesterone-receptor positive vs. negative tumors; Tamoxifen; Stem cell transplant; Evista; Fareston; Herceptin
What are the 6 surgical options for breast ca? 1. Lumpectomy 2. Mastectomy 3. Modified radical mastectomy 4. Radical mastectomy 5. Axillary dissection 6. Reconstructive surgery & breast implant surgery
What surgery removes only the breast lump & a surrounding margin of normal tissue? lumpectomy
What surgery simply means breast & no lymph nodes? Mastectomy (simple means breast & no lymph nodes)
What surgery is the removal of entire breast & the axillary lymph nodes? Modified radical mastectomy (removal of entire breast & the axillary lymph nodes)
What surgery is the removal of entire breast, axillary lymph nodes, & the pectoral muscles under the breast? Radical mastectomy: (removal of entire breast, axillary lymph nodes, & the pectoral muscles under the breast)
What surgery is done to determine whether CA has spread? Axillary dissection (to determine whether CA has spread)
What surgery may be done at the time of the mastectomy? Reconstructive surgery & breast implant surgery (may be done at the time of the mastectomy)
How do you provide nursing care for breast ca patients Post op? Exercise operative arm; Elevate above heart; Pain moderate only-oral analgesics; J-tube; Teaching home care; Body image; Refer to Reach for Recovery; Sexuality concerns; Lymphedema; Etiology
Exercise and arm elevation; Physical therapy; Gentle massage; & compression sleeve are some nursing care given for _____ patients post op? breast CA patients
What are the Breast Cancer (Post mastectomy) do’s and don’ts? Do’s and Don’ts: Avoid blood pressure, injections, blood draw in affected arm; Prevent infection by wearing gloves & protecting hand & arm from trauma; Exercise arm & hand as directed
What are the benefits of breast reconstruction? Goals: Symmetry & Contour; benefits that women still look normal and have a better self esteem related to their image
What are some post op nursing activities for a breast reconstruction pt? Post-op; Tissue perfusion; Assessment of color, pulses, and sensation
__ & ___ are more extensive with breast reconstruction? Pain and wound care more extensive with reconstruction
What are the two main types of Lymphomas and how many subtypes do they have? Hodgkin lymphoma: 5 subtypes; Non-Hodgkin lymphomas: 30 subtypes
This cancer involves lymphocytes and lymph nodes. It can occur at any age. What is the cancer? lymphomas
What are the S&S of Lymphoma? Enlarged lymph nodes: May start with a painless swelling in the neck, under arm or groin. Enlargement of the spleen may cause abdominal pain or discomfort. Fever, chills, wt loss, night sweats.
How do you promote health and prevention of cancer? Don’t use tobacco in any form; Eat high proportion of plant foods; Limit amounts of meat, dairy, & other high fat foods; Limit intake of alcoholic beverages; Maintain ideal body wt; Be physically active
What are the common sites of metastasis if you have Breast CA? Bone*, Lung*, Liver, Brain
What are the common sites of metastasis for Lung CA? Brain*, Bone, Liver, Lymph nodes, & Pancreas
What are the common sites of metastasis for Prostate CA? Bone (especially spine & legs)* & Pelvic nodes
What are the common sites of metastasis for Melanoma CA? Gastrointestinal tract, Lymph nodes, Lung, & Brain
What are the common sites of metastasis for Colorectal CA? Liver*, Lymph nodes, & Adjacent structures
What are the common sites of metastasis for Primary Brain CA? Central Nervous System
Small Cell Lung carcinoma is the most common in? smokers
Anaplastic lung cancer is the most common in? Non-smokers
What is the rate of Normal Cell division? None or slow
What is the rate of Embryonic Cell Division? Rapid, continuous
What is the rate of Benign Tumor Cell Division? Continuous or inappropriate
What is the rate of Malignant Cell Division? Rapid or continuous
What is the Appearance of Embryonic Cells and Malignant Cells? Anaplastic
What is the Apperance of Normal & Benign Tumor Cells? Specific morphologic features
What is the Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of Normal & Benign Tumor Cells? Small
What is the Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of Embryonic & Malignant Cells? Large
How many differentiated functions of Normal cells and Benign tumor cells are there? Many
How many differentiated functions is there in embryonic cells? NONE
How many differentiated functions are there in malignant cells? Some or none
Are Normal & Benign Tumor Cells migratory? NO
Are Embryonic & Malignant Cells migratory? Yes
What is the growth of Normal and Embryonic Cells? The Growth is Well regulated
In ____ the cell grows by expansion? Benign Tumor Cell
In ___ the cell grows by invasion? Malignant cell
Normal, Embryonic, & Benign Tumor Cells have how many chromosomes while malignant cells are____? Normal…are Diploid while malignant cells are aneuploid
In pancreatic cancer what do you want to watch? Lipase and amylase
What types of cells have High mitotic indexes? Embryonic & Malignant Cells
What types of cells have LOW mitotic indexes? Normal & Benign Tumor cells
Alcoholic beverages; steroids; arsenic; asbestos; benzene; Chemotherapy drugs (Alkylating agents, anthracylcine antibiotics, antimetabolites); cyclosporine; diesel exhaust… are all known ____? Environmental Carcinogens
Formaldehyde; Hair dyes; Ionizing Radiation; Mineral oils; pesticides; polycylic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; Sunlight; & Tobacco are all ____? Environmental Carcinogens
What tissue of Origin does the prefix adeno indicate? Epithelial glands
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Chondro indicate? Cartilage
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Fibro indicate? Fibrous connective tissue
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Glio indicate? Glial cells (Brain)
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Hemangio indicate? blood vessel
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Hepato indicate? Liver
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Leiomyo indicate? smooth Muscle
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Lipo indicate? Fat/adipose
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Lympho indicate? Lymphoid tissues
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Melano indicate? Pigment-producing skin
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Meningio indicate? Meninges
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Neuro indicate? Nerve tissue
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Osteo indicate? Bone
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Renal indicate? Kidney
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Rhabdo indicate? Skeletal muscle
What tissue of Origin does the prefix Squamous indicate? Epithelial layer of skin, mucous membranes, and organ linings
What does Gx mean? Grade of Malignant tumor cannot be determined
What does G1 mean? Tumor cells are well differentiated & closely resemble the normal cells from which they arose; Considered low grade of malignant change; Tumor is malignant but are relatively SLOW Growing
What does G2 mean? Tumor cells are moderately differentiated; they still retain some of the characteristics of normal cells but also have more malignant characterisitics than do G1 tumors
What does G3 mean? Tumor cells are poorly differentiated, but the tissue of origin can usually be established; These cells have few normal cell characteristics
What does G4 mean? Tumor cells are poorly differentiated & retain no normal cell characteristics; Determination of the tissue of origin is difficult & perhaps impossible
What does T stand for in TNM? Primary Tumor
What does Tx mean? Primary tumor cannot be assessed
What does T0 mean? No evidence of primary tumor
What does Tis mean? Cancinoma in situ
What does T1-4 mean? Increasing size &/or local extent of the primary tumor
What does N stand for in TNM? Regional Lymph Nodes
What does Nx mean? Regional Lymph Node involvement cannot be assessed
What does No mean? No regional lymph node involvement
What does N1-3 mean? Increasing involvement of regional lymph nodes
What does M stand for in TNM? Distant Metastasis
What does Mx mean? Presence of distant metastasis cannot be assessed
What does Mo mean? No distant metastasis
What does M1 mean? Distant metastasis
What is transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM)? it is reconstructive breast surgery where there lower abdominal muscle is used in combination with tissue expanders and implants to obtain symmetry. Breast appear natural.
Created by: cgwayland