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GI System

Process of breaking down the complex food into simple nutrients the body can absorb and convert to energy Digestion
Inflammation and ulcerations in the mouth caused by infections Stomatitis
Primary nursing intervention for stomatitis Oral care
Appropriate food for stomatitis Less acidic food, avoid fresh fruit cuz of bacteria
Varice veins inside the esophagus Esophageal varices
Gastric secretions flow upward into the esophagus, damaging the tissues GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Causes of GERD development Poor developed sphincter, high stress, smoking, drinking and obesity
Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Treat with diet, medications, weight loss.
Passage of dark stools stained with altered blood Melena
Inflammation of the stomach mucosa Gastritis
Tx of gastritis Neutralize acid in the stomach or decrease acid production
Nursing intervention for gastritis Stop smoking, avoid food that can cause indigestion, avoid aspirin or ibuprofen or take with food
Erosions that form in esophagus, stomach, or duodenum (anywhere on the elementary canal) Ulcers
Causes of Peptic ulcers Imbalance of Acid/Pepsin
Causes of Stress ulcers Erosive gastritis that starts to bleed
Function of Appendix Stores and repopulate GI tract with good bacterias
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Appendicitis
What is the best assessment tool to detect appendicitis Pain level
Nursing interventions for appendicitis Assess pain, monitor vital signs, keep client NPO, assess bowel sounds, monitor lab
Saclike protrusions of intestinal wall Diverticula
A condition characterized by the presence of numerous diverticula in the colon Diverticulosis
Inflammation of a diverticulum or of diverticula in the intestinal tract, causing fecal stagnation and pain Diverticulitis
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis LOSIS, it’s OK, no problem, you just have it, but risk for inflammation, which is LITIS, dangerous.
Diet for Diverticulosis High fiber diet
Diet for Diverticulitis NPO, no fiber and very low residue food, complete liquid
Severe inflammation and ulcerations of the bowel Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
Diet for Crohn’s disease Total parenteral IV nutrition.
The contents cannot pass through the intestine Intestinal Obstruction
Medical treatment for intestinal obstruction Insert an NG tube for decompression, provide IV fluids for rehydration, and treat the cause
Occur when the wall of a muscle weakens and the intestine protrudes through the muscle wall Hernias
Where are the common hernias located? Abdomen
Lining of abdominal cavity Peritonium
Inflammation of the peritoneum Peritonitis
Swollen vascular tissues in the rectal area Hemorrhoids
Treatment of Hemorrhoids Sitz baths, creams, and suppositories to decrease inflammation and swelling, fiber supplements, stool softeners, or surgery
Hard, infrequent stools that are difficult and/or painful to pass Constipation
Treatment for constipation Fiber supplements, stool softeners, laxatives, enemas, diet modifications, increased activities, and increased fluids
Chronic, degenerative changes in the liver cells and thickening of surrounding tissue Cirrhosis
Swollen liver Hepatomegaly
Swollen spleen Splenomegaly
Chronic or acute inflammation of liver caused by virus, bacteria, drugs, alcohol abuse, or other toxic substances Hepatitis
Transmission of Hepatitis A and E Fecal-Oral route
Acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder Cholecystitis
Presence of gallstones (calculi) in the gallbladder Cholelithiasis or gallstones
Tx for Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis Low-fat diets, analgesics, and surgery
Risk factor for cholicystitis Pregnant women, using hormone replacement therapy, taking birth control pills, over age 60, American Indians, Mexican Americans, overweight or obese men and women, family history, diabetes, cholesterol-lowering drugs
Forms of oral cancer Lips, tongue, oral cavity, and pharynx
Grow in the lining of intestine Polyp
Is chemotherapy effective against oral cancers? No, Treatment is primarily surgical, remove the affected part
Third most common site of new cancers and deaths in the United States Colorectal Cancer
Liver cancer is primary or secondary? Secondary, usually metastases from other sites in the body and are asymptomatic until later stages
Where in the GI are most nutrients absorbed? In the small intestine, stomach, simple sugar in mouth, water in large intestine
What will the consistency of stool evacuated from small intestine/large intestine look like? More normal in the end of rectum, more watery in small intestine or at beginning of small, because the function of large is to absorb water.
What is the function of the colon? Recycling, reabsorption of water
When will a client be most likely to have a BM? After a meal, the new food pushes the old one, when resting.
How will this affect your planning/implementation of a bowel training program? Plan accordingly. Plan to eliminate incontinence, Client should have a regular BM, develop a routine, risk for skin break down, help to wipe them good.
Use of Bedpan 2 types, regular and fracture
Use of BSC, bed side commode Closest to the bed
The process of wavelike muscle contractions of alimentary tract that moves food along peristalsis
What factors reduce or increase peristalsis? Age, Smoking, gastritis…
What is “fecal occult test”? Test performed at home in which you collect specimens of your stool that are tested for traces of blood
What are sign that you need to test this? If suspected blood in stool.
Blockage of bowel Bowel obstruction
Constipation Ask for last BM, difficult to go,
Digital removal of bowel that is obstructed just at the end Fecal impaction
Bag in small intestine Ileostomy
Bag in the colon Colostomy
Giving an enema: supplies, position, procedure keep nearby towel, BSC or bedpan by the bed, about 2 inches inside, look at the instructions
Created by: fausfez