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AEMT Respiratory

AEMT NREMT Respiratory chaptera 10-14

acidosis a pathologic condition that results from the accumulation of acids in the body
aerobic metabolism metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen
agonal gasp occasional gasps that are ineffective attempts at breathing, occurring after the heart has stopped
alcoholic ketoacidosis the metabolic acidotic state that manifest from the poor nutritional habits associated with chronic alcohol abuse. the liver and the body experience inadequate fuel reserves of glycogen and thus, have to switch to fatty acid build up
alkalosis the buildup of excess base (lack of acids) in the body
alveolar ventilation the volume of air that reaches the alveoli, It is determined by subtracting the amount of dead space air from the tidal volume
American Standard System a safety system for oxygen cylinders larger than size E, designed to present the accidental attachment of a regulator to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas
anaerobic metabolism the metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; principal product is lactic acid
apnea absence of breathing
aspiration the introduction of vomit or other foreign material into the lungs
ataxia respiration irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern
atelectasis a condition of airless or collapsed alveoli that causes pulmonary shunting, ventilation-perfusion mismatching, and possibly hypoxemia
automatic transport ventilator (ATV) a mechanical ventilator that is used to ventilate intubated patients during transport; has setting for the tidal volume and ventilatory rate
bag-mask device a device with a face mask attached to a ventilation bag containing a reservoir and connected to oxygen; delivers more than 90% supplemental oxygen
barrier device a protective item, such as pocket mask with a valve, that limits exposure to a patient's body fluids
bilateral a body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline
bradypnea slow respiratory rate
bronchioles small airways make of smooth muscle that lead to the alveoli
carina point at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) into the left and right mainstem bronchi
cellular respiration a biochemical process resulting in the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate
CNS depression the slowing of the nervous system function of the brain because of delays in nerve cell transmission. several factors can influence CNS depression, including nerve cell permeability, hypoxia, drugs, and injury
cerebral perfusion the ability of fluid to move from cerebral circulation to cerebral tissue, carrying oxygen, and nutrients to the cells
chemoreceptors peripheral and central receptors that monitors the levels of chemicals in the blood
Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (cobraPLA) a supraglottic airway device with a shape that allows the device to slide easily along the hard palate and to hold the soft tissue airway from the laryngeal inlet
Combitude a dual-lumen airway device that is inserted blindly; permits ventilation of the patient whether the tube is placed in the esophagus or the trachea
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) a method of ventilation used primarily in the treatment of critically ill patients with respiratory distress; can precent the need for endotracheal tubes
dead space the amount of inhaled air that does not participate in respiration
dissociate to loes hydrogen atom in the presence of water acids are classified as strong or weak, depending on how completely the dissociate in water
dorsal respiratory group a portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found
dyspnea shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
dysrhythmia an irregular or abnormal heart rhythm
exhalation the part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax, forcing air out of the lungs
expiration the process of moving air out of the lungs
external respiration the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood cells int he pulmonary capillaries; also called pulmonary respiration
gag reflux a normal reflux mechanism that causes retching; activated by touching the soft palate or the back of the throat
glottic opening the narrowest oration of the adult's airway; space between the vocal chords
head tilt-chin lift maneuver a combination of 2 movements to open the airway by tilting the forehead back and lifting the chin; use for non-trauma patients
Hering-Breuer reflex the nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung over expansion
hyperbarbia increased carbon dioxide level in the bloodstream
hyperventilation an increased amount of air entering the alveoli, which lowers the blood carbon dioxide level and usually is a result of rapid or deep breathing
hypoperfusion a condition that develops when the circulatory system is not able to deliver sufficient blood and oxygen to body organs, resulting in organ failure and eventual death if untreated
hypovolemic shock a condition in which low blood volume, due to massive internal or external bleeding or extensive loss of body water, resulting in inadequate perfusion
hypoxemia a deficiency of oxygen in arterial blood
hypoxia a dangerous condition in which the body's tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen
hypoxic drive a backup system to ontrol respirations hen the oxygen level falls
inhalation the active, muscular part of breathing that draws air into the airway and lungs
inspiration the process of moving air into the lungs
internal respiration the exchange of gases between the blood cells and the tissues
intrapulmonary shunting bypassing f oxygen-poor blood past nonfunctional alveoli to the left side of the heart
jaw-thrust maneuver technique to open the airway by placing the fingers behind the angle of the jaw and bringing the jaw forward; used when a patient may have a cervical spine injury
ketoacidosis an acidotic state created by production of ketones via fat metabolism
ketones the by-product of fat metabolism when fatty acids are used, rather than glucose, by body cells. an excess of ketones can lead to ketoacidosis
King LT airway a single lumen airway that is blindly inserted into the esophagus; when properly placed in the esophagus, one cuff seals the esophagus, and the other seals the oropharynx
labored breathing breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles
lactic acidosis the metabolic acidotic state resulting from the accumulation of lactic acid during anaerobic cellular metabolism
Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) an airway device that is inserted into the mouth blindly and comes to rest at the glottic opening. a flexible cuff is inflated, creating an almost airtight seal
laryngospasm the spasmodic contraction of vocal cords accompanied by an enfolding of the arytenoid and aryepiglottic folds
larynx a complex structure formed by the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilage and cuneiform cartilage; the voice box
lung compliance the ability of the alveoli to fully expand when air is drawn in during inhalation
manually triggered ventilation device a fixed flow/rate ventilation device that delivers a breath every time its button is pushed; also referred to as flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device
mediastinum space within the chest that contains the heart, major blood vessels, vagus nerve, trachea, major bronchi, and esophagus; located between the lungs
metabolic acidosis a pathological condition of characterized by a blood pH of less than 7.35 and caused by accumulation of acids int he body from metabolic cause
metabolic alkadosis a pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of greater than 7.45 and resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body from metabolic cause
metabolism the chemical processes that provide the cells with energy from nutrients
mild airway obstruction the condition in which an obstruction leaves the patient able to exchange some air, but also causes some degree of respiratory destress
minute volume the amount of air moved in and out of the respiratory tract per minute, which is determined by the tidal volume multiplied by the respiratory rate.
multilumen airway airway device with a single long tube that can be used for esophageal obturation or endotracheal tube ventilation, depending on where it comes to rest following blind positioning
nasal cannula an oxygen-delivery device in which oxygen flows through two small, tubelike prongs that fit into the patient;s nostrils
nasopharyngeal airway an airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of a responsive patient who is not able to maintain a natural airway
non-rebreathing mask a combination mask and reservoir bag system that is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen
oropharyngeal an airway adjunct inserted into the mouth to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and to make suctioning the airway easier
oxygen saturation (Sp02) the measure of the percentage of oxygen molecules that are bound to hemoglobin in arterial blood
paradoxial motion the inward movement of the cheat during inhalation and outward movement during exhalation; the opposite of normal chest wall movement during breathing.
parietal pleura thin membrane that lines the chest cavity
partial pressure the term used to describe the amount of gas in air or dissolved in fluid, such as blood
partial rebreathing mask a mask that is similar to non-rebreathing mask except there is no one-wau valve between the mask and the reservoir; therefore, patients rebreathe a small amount of their exhaled air
patent open. clear of obstruction
pH a measure of acidity of a solution
pharyngotracheal lumen airway (PtL) a dual-luman airway device that is inserted blindly into the mouth. the patient can be ventilated whether the tube is placed in the esophagus or into the trachea
phrenic nerve the nerve that innervates the diaphragm; necessary for adequate breathing
pin-indexing system a system established for portable cylinders to ensure that regulators is not connected to a cylinder containing the wrong type of bass
pneumothorax a partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) mechanical maintenance of pressure in the airway at the end of expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lung
pulmonary edema a buildup of fluid in the lung, usually as a result of congestion heart failure
pulse oximetry an assessment method that measures the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds
recovery position a side-lying position used to maintain in clear airway in patients without injures
residual volume the air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
respiratory the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide
respiratory acidosis a pathologic condition characterized by blood pH of less than 7.35 and resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body from respiratory cause
respiratory alkalosis a pathologic condition characterized by blood pH of greater than 7.45 and resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body from respiratory cause
respiratory rate the number of ventilatory cycles in a unit of time usually 1 minute; also known as the ventilation rate
retractions movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration
severe airway obstruction occurs when a foreign body completely obstructs the patient;s airway. patients cannot breathe, talk, or cough
stoma a surgical opening in the body that connects an internal structure to the skin, such as a stoma in the neck that connects the trachea directly to the skin
suction catheter a hollow, cylindrical device used to remove fluid and secretions fromt he airway
surfactant the proteinaceous substance that lines the inside of the alveoli and allows for easy expansion and recoil of the alveoli
tidal volume the amount of air moved during one breathe
tongue-jaw lift maneuver a method of opening the airway for suctioning or inserting an oral airway; involves grasping the incisors or gums and lifting the jaw
tonsil-tip catheter a suction catheter with a large, semirigid suction tip, recommend for suctioning the pharynx; also called yankauer tip
trachea the windpipe; the main conduit for air passing to and from the lungs
tracheostomy surgical creation of a hole in the trachea
tracheostomy tube a tube inserted through the hole created by a tracheostomy
turbinates bony shelves that extend from the lateral walls of the nose into the nasal passageway; increase the surface area of the nasal muscosa, improving filtration, warming, and humidification of inhaled air
vasodilatory shock a type of chock related to relaxation of the blood vessels, allowing blood to pool and impairing circulation
ventilation the exchange of air between the lungs and the air of the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance
ventral respiratory group a portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulating breathing during speech
visceral pleura thing membrane that covers the lung
vital capacity the amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible
V/Q mismatch a measurement that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is gaining access to the alveoli
acidosis the buildup of excess acid in the blood or body tissues
Adventitious breath sounds abnormal breath sounds such as wheezes, rhonchi, and rales
alkalosis a buildup of excess base in the body fluid
allergen a substance that causes an allergic reaction
asthma a disease of the lungs in which muscle spas in the small air passageways and the production of large amounts of mucus result in airway obstruction
atelectasis collapse of the alveoli
bronchial breath sounds normal breath sounds made by air moving through the bronchi
bronchiolitis inflammation of the bronchioles that usually occurs in children younger than 2 years and is often caused by the respiratory syncytial virus
carbon dioxide retention a condition characterized by a chronically high level of carbon dioxide in blood as the result of a respiratory disease
carpopedal spasms Tingling and spasms of phalanges resulting from hyperventilation
chronic bronchitis irritation and inflammation of the major lung passageways, from either infectious disease or irritants such as smoke
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) a slow, degenerative process that causes destructive changes in the alveoli and bronchioles in the lung
common cold a viral infection usually associated wit swollen nasal mucous membranes and the production of fluid from the sinuses
Croup an infectious disease of the upper respiratory that may cause partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough, usually seen in children; also referred to as laryngotracheobronchitis
cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder of endocrine system that makes it difficult for chloride to move through cells; primarily targets the respiratory and digestive system
diphtheria an infectious disease in which membrane lining the pharynx is formed that can severely obstruct passage of air into the larynx
embolus a blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that breaks free from its site of origin and obstructs blood flow in a distant blood vessel
emphysema a disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic pulmonary disease
epidemic occurs when new cases of a disease occur in a human population and substantially exceed what is "expected" based on recent experience
epiglottitis an infectious disease in which the epiglottis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause upper airway obstruction; also referred to as acute supraglottic laryngitis
Hyperventilation Syndrome a syndrome that occurs in the absence of other physical problems and whose symptoms include anxiety, dizziness, numbness, tingling of the hands and feet, and dyspnea despite rapid breathing
influenza type A a virus that has crossed the animal/human barrier and has infected humans, recently reaching a pandemic level with the H1N1 strain
meningococcal meningitis an inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; can be highly contagious
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) a bacterium that can cause infectious in different parts of the body
orthopnea severe dyspnea experienced when lying down and relieved by sitting up
pandemic an outbreak that occurs in a global scale
pertussis (whooping cough) an airborne bacterial infection that causes fever and a "whoop" sound on inspiration after a coughing attack; affects mostly children younger than 6 years; highly contagious through droplet infection
pleural effusion a collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung
pleuritic chest pain sharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of pleura
pneumonia an infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissues
pneumothorax a partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space
pulmonary edema a buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of left-sided congestive heart failure
pulmonary embolism a blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessel of the lung causing obstruction of blood flow
rales crackling, moist breath sounds signaling fluid in the smaller air passages of the lung
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a virus that causes an infection of the lung and breathing passages can lead to other serious illnesses that affect the lungs or heart; such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia; highly contagious and spread through droplets
rhonchi coarse, rattling breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the larger lower airways
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) a potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flu-like symptoms
small-volume nebulizer a respiratory device that holds liquid medicine that is turned into a fine mist. the patient medication into the airways and lungs as a treatment for conditions like asthma
status asthmaticus a prolonged exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to conventional therapy
stridor a harsh, high-pitched, barking inspiratory sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction.
subcutaneous emphysema air bubbles trapped underneath the skin in the subcutaneous tissues
tuberculosis a disease that can lay dormant in a person's lung for decades, than reactivate; many strains are resistant to many antibiotics; spread br cough
vesicular breath sounds normal breath sounds made by air moving in and out of the alveoli
wheezing a high-pitched, whistling breath sounds, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Created by: kelso571