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TermTest 1

Patho

QuestionAnswer
The study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death Pathology
The study of how disease affects body function Pathophysiology
Having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions Health
Being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions Disease
The study of the cause of a disease Etiology
A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene Genetic
A disease, condition, or trait that is present at birth Congenital
A disease, condition, or trait that developed because of being exposed to something during your life Acquired
Without a clearly identified cause Idiopathic
Evidence of a disease that is objective and can be seen, measured, or recorded Signs
Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured, or recorded Symptoms
The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses Pathogenesis
A disease that develops and resolves rapidly Acute
A disease that develops gradually and lasts longer than 3 months Chronic
The lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease Remission
An increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms Exacerbation
A condition that is confined to one area Local
A condition that affects the entire body Systemic
A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body Endoscopy
The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation Radiodensity
A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures X-Rays
X-rays that utilize a contrastmedia to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids within the body, producing an image of the structures containing the fluid Contrast X-Rays
A visual recording of differences in the rate of return and intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects within the body Ultrasound
A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system Electrocardiograms
A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often recording the cerebral cortex Electroencephalogram
Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities of the respiratory system. Often referred to as PFTs (pulmonary function tests) Spirometry
The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body. Two main types of chemotherapy are used-to kill cancer cells or microorganisms Chemotherapy
The use of drugs to treat disease Pharmacological
Any form of treatment that relieves signs & symptoms without curing a disease. May include the use of medication (such as a decongestant or pain reliever), therapeutic massage, counseling, physical therapy, orthotic devices,... Palliative
A prediction of the likely outcome or consequence of having a disease Prognosis
A consequence of a previous disease. (Ex. rheumatic heart disease sometimes occurs following a strep infection) Sequela
A morbid process or event occuring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it may result from it. (Ex blindness is a complication often associated with diabetes) Complications
A disease likely to cause death Terminal
The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy may be mechanical, electrical, radiation, or thermal Trauma
lacking in something that is essential (vitamin, glucose, protein, oxygen, water,..) Deficiency
Being exposed to a toxic level of something Intoxication
To increase in size Hypertrophy
To decrease in size Atrophy
An increase in the rate of mitosis and therefore cell number Hyperplasia
A change in cell or tissue structure Metaplasia
Irregular cell or tissue structure. Often considered a potentially cancerous change Dysplasia
Growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. May be benign or malignanat Neoplasia
A protective response of tissue or injury or infection. Causes an increase in blood flow and pain in the affected region, as well as leukocytosis Inflammation
Chemicals that cause a fever Pyrogens
An increase int he number of WBC to more than 10,000 mm3. A WBC count of 15,000-25,000 commonly occurs as result of infection, inflammation, or hemorrhage Leukocytosis
The excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Contains a high level of proteins and neutrophils when compared ot normal tissue fluid Exudate
A thin, clear watery fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation Serous Exudates
A thick, creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Also called pus Purulent Exudate
A response to injury or infection that leads to the production of pus Suppurative Inflammation
Replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition Regeneration
Replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue Repair
The binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue Adhesions
The over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue that is often tender or painful Keloid Scarring
The shortening of scar tissue over time OR the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes Contracture
The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intesting, a blood vessel, or a heart valve Stenosis
The process of hardening. Can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaques Sclerosis
Tissue death Necrosis
An early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetite and lack of energy. The time when a person feels as if they are "coming down with something" Prodromal Stage
A severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstricion (resulting in severe difficulty in breathing) Anaphylaxis
The immune system's constant search for an antigen Immunosurveillance
The immune system's ability to recognize and not attack normally occurring tissues within the body Immunotolerance
The development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body until the appearance of the first clinical signs and symptoms Incubation
The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms begin to develop Acute Stage
A nonmalignant neoplasm Benign
A cancerous neoplasm Malignant
The development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries Angiogenesis
Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening test of the person's blood Tumor Markers
A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues Carcinoma
A malignancy that originates in connective tissue Sarcoma
A malignancy that originates within the tissue of the central nervous system Glioma
The process of developing a malignant neoplasm Carcinogenesis
Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogenes Initiators (of cancer)
Carcinogens that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes Promoters (of cancer)
The nucleic acid that contains all of an individual's genes. Found in the nucleus of every cell. Different cells are different because, though they contain the same DNA, they use different genes. DNA
A region on DNA that contains the "code" for making one protein. Genes
Different forms of a gene. Alleles
An allele that is always expressed Dominant
An allele that will be expressed only when the person is homozygous. It is hidden or partially hidden in the presence of a dominant allele. Recessive
A two letter code that describes which allel a person has. (AA, Aa, aa,..) Genotype
Having the same two alleles for a gene. Homozygous
Having different alleles for a gene Heterozygous
The allele that we can see evidence of. Expressed
Describes what characteristics are produced as a result of having a certain genotype. Phenotype
The combination of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis. Chromosomes
Chromosome pairs 1-22 Autosomes
The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans. Sex Chromosomes
Describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes Karyotype
Having the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes Diploid
having an abnormal number of chromosomes Aneuploid
Missing a chromosome Monosomy
Having an extra copy of a chromosome Trisomy
The percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells Hematocrit
The average size of a red blood cell Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
A group of diseases that decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen Anemias
A group of diseases that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts Leukemias
Having an abnormally high number of erythrocytes Polycythemia
A decrease in the number of all normal blood cells Pancytopenia
A decrease in the number of red blood cells Erythrocytopenia
A decrease in the number of white blood cells Leukopenia
Having a low number of platelets Thrombocytopenia
A genetic decrease in the activity of one of the clotting factors Hemophilia
A group of genetic anemias resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of globin chains. Thalassemias
Any factor from withing the body Intrinsic factor (general)
A protein secreted by gastric glands that is needed for the absorption of B-12 Intrinsic factor (pernicious anemia)
Any factor coming from outside the body Extrinsic Factor (general)
Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamine) Extrinsic Factor (pernicious anemia)
Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds Auscultation
An ultrasound of the heart Echocardiography
An electrocardiogram performed while the heart rate is elevated Stress Test
A contrast x-ray showing circulation Angiography
Proteins released from damaged cardiac tissue into the blood; used as a diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction Cardiac Markers
Having a normal heart rhythm established by the sioatrial node Normal Sinus Rhythm
Having a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute Bradycardia
Having a resting heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute Tachycardia
The inability of valve to either open or close properly Valvular Incompetence
The inability of a valve to open completely Valvular Stenosis
When one of the AV valves swings up into the atrium when it should be closed Valvular Prolapse
The build up of fatty deposits (plaque) within blood vessels Atherosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
Narrowing of the arteries Arteriostenosis
A local decrease in the blood flow due to obstruction Ischemia
Chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia Angina Pectoris
Ischemic necrosis of heart muscle. A heart attack. Myocardial Infarctions
A temporary decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia Tia
Chronic high blood pressure that is a complication of another condition Secondary Hypertension
Chronic high blood pressure of an unknown origin Primary (essential) Hypertension
Localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall Aneurysm
Coughing up blood from the lungs Hemoptysis
A lack of oxygen Hypoxia
An excess of carbon dioxide Hypercapnea
A decrease in the pH of body fluids as a result of a buildup of carbon dioxide Respiratory Acidosis
A partial or complete collapse of the lung tissue Atelectasis
The presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura Pneumothorax
A group of over-inflated alveoli Bullae
A lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane Ulcer
A lesion caused by pepsin Pepsin Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum Duodenal Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach Gastric Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the esophagus Esophageal Ulcer
A pouch or sac that developed off of a tubular structure such as the intestine Diverticulum
Inflammation of a pouch or sac opening off of a tubular structure Diverticulitis
The presence of diverticula within the intestine Diverticulosis
The presence of stones within the gall bladder or biliary ducts Cholelithiases
A disease of nervous tissue Neuropathy
A disease of muscle tissue Myopathy
A contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine Intravenous Pyelogram
A blood test used as an indicator of kidney function. It measures that quantity of urea, which is a waste product of protein metabolism Bun
A measure of kidney function that compares the quantity of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood Creatinine Clearance
Using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder Cystoscopy
Created by: 808963851