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Carp115KeyGenetics

Prepare yourself for the genetics section of the PA Keystone exam

QuestionAnswer
What stage of meiosis does crossing over occur? Prophase I
What are long strands of DNA called? chromosomes
What is the genetic material found in organisms that codes for hereditary traits? DNA
What are segments of DNA that code for specific traits called? genes
What are alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic called? alleles
What tool can geneticists use to predict the appearance of the offspring produced from two parents? Punnett squares
What type of genes are always expressed if they are present in an organism's genotype? dominant
What is a pair of alleles that an organism receives from its parents called? genotype
If an organism has a genotype of AA, what is the scientific term for these alleles? Homozygous dominant
If an organism has a genotype of Aa, what is the scientific term for these alleles? Heterozygous dominant
If an organism has a genotype of aa, what is the scientific term for these alleles? Homozygous recessive
What type of genes are only expressed if dominant genes are not present? Recessive
What is the physical expression of the pair of alleles for a specific trait called? Phenotype
What are the five exceptions to simple Mendelian genetics? Polygenic traits Incomplete dominance Multiple alleles Codominance Sex-linked traits
What type of exception to simple inheritance has traits that are determined by the combined effect of more than one pair of genes? polygenic traits
What type of exception to simple inheritance results in an intermediate expression of a trait in heterozygous individuals? Incomplete dominance
What type of exception to simple inheritance has genes with three or more different alleles? Multiple alleles
What type of exception to simple inheritance has two dominant alleles that are expressed at the same time? Codominance
What type of exception to simple inheritance has genes that are found only on the X chromosome and not on the Y chromosome? Sex-linked traits
What type of exception to simple inheritance can the genes be scattered along the same chromosome or located on different chromosomes? Polygenic traits
What 2 types of exceptions to simple inheritance tend to have varying degrees of intermediate conditions? Polygenic traits Incomplete dominance
What are three popular examples of polygenic traits? hair color eye color height weight
How many alleles are expressed with genes controlled by multiple alleles? 2
What two exceptions to simple inheritance is human blood type an example? Multiple alleles Codominance
What chromosome does sex linked traits tend to be found on? X chromosome
Which sex tends to express sex-linked traits more often? males
What is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes called? crossing-over
What does crossing over produce? recombinant chromosomes
What phase of meiosis does crossing-over occur? Prophase I
What genetic phenomenon shuffles the allele content between homologous chromosomes and creates more possible combinations of offspring? crossing over
What genetic mutation entails a failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis? Nondisjunction
What is the result of nondisjunction? a gamete with an imbalance of chromosomes
What disorder involves the loss of a single homologous chromosome? monosomy
Turner Syndrome is a disorder that a woman may inherit that cause her to have only one sex chromosome. What is this type disorder known as? monosomy
What disorder is involves gaining a single extra chromosome to its pair of homologous chromosomes? trisomy
What type of mutation adds one or more extra nucleotides into DNA? insertion
What type of mutation are chromosomal insertion? frameshift
If the original strand of DNA is: ATCGTA If the mutated strand of DNA is: ATCGGTA What type of mutation would this be? Frameshift insertion
If the original strand of DNA is: GGCTTA If the mutated strand of DNA is: GTAGCTTA What type of mutation would this be? Frameshift insertion
What type of mutation results in the removal of one or more nucleotides from the DNA? deletion
What type of mutation is a chromosomal deletion? Frameshift
If the original strand of DNA is: TCGACG If the mutated strand of DNA is: TGACG What type of mutation would this be? Frameshift deletion
What type of mutation leads to multiple copies of all chromosomal regions, increasing the dosage of the genes located within them? Duplication
What type of mutation is chromosomal duplication? Frameshift
If the original strand of DNA is: ATCGTA If the mutated strand of DNA is: ATCATCGGTA What type of mutation would this be? Frameshift duplication
If the original strand of DNA is: CCTGCA If the mutated strand of DNA is: CCTGCAGCA What type of mutation would this be? Frameshift duplication
What type of mutation causes a segment of a chromosome to be reversed? Inversion
If the original strand of DNA is: CCGTAC If the mutated strand of DNA is: CCGCAT What type of mutation would this be? Point Inversion
What type of mutation involves a chromosomal inversion? Point
What type of mutation is a chromosomal abnormality by rearrangement of nucleotide sequences between two different homologous chromosomes? Translocation
Which type of mutation tends to lead to cancer? Frameshift translocation
What type of mutation is the result of chemicals or malfunction of DNA replication which results in an exchange of single nucleotide? Point
What type of point mutation involves a change in DNA that does not affect the amino acid sequence of a protein? Silent mutation
What type of point mutation occurs in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon? Nonsense mutation
What type of point mutation occurs when a single nucleotide is changed and results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid? Missense mutation
Which type of point mutation results in a nonfunctioning protein? Missense mutation
What type of mutation will cause the reading of the codons after the mutation to code for different amino acids? Frameshift mutations
What is a change in DNA called? Mutation
What arises from mutations in genes? New phenotype
Why are new phenotypes that arise from mutations in genes important to organisms? Creates variation that allows organisms to adapt to environments
What is the process of breeding plants and animals for specific traits known as? Selective breeding
What are four benefits of selective breeding? high crop yields resistance to disease high growth rate improved medicinal production
What are four negative impacts of selective breeding? Other animals become redundant and unnecessary Could cause genetic problems Disrupts the food chain Could disrupt the water cycle
What is the process of cutting DNA from one organism and attaching it to the DNA of another organism causing the host organism to demonstrate a new phenotype called? Gene splicing
Attaching the insulin gene to DNA of bacteria is called? Gene splicing
What is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms reproduce sexually called? Cloning
What are four advantages of cloning? cloned body parts can save lives can be a viable solution to infertility helps to understand the composition of genes helps to replicate animals for research
What are three disadvantages of cloning? limits diversity which limits adaptability raises probability of undesirable traits in a population morally and ethically questioned
What process is DNA used to supplement or alter genes within an individual's cells as a therapy to treat disease? gene therapy
What intervention strategy introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury? Stem cell therapy
Created by: carp115