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Bio 3.3 Vocabulary

meiosis, DNA and genes, protein synthesis, genetics/traits, genetic engineering

meiosis special cell division process that creates gametes
diploid 2n; body cell with a full set of chromosomes
haploid n; sex cell with half the normal # of chromosomes
gamete sex cell
somatic cell normal body cell
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
zygote fertilized egg formed by fertilization
n haploid
2n diploid
fertilization joining of sperm and egg to create a zygote
crossing over exchange of genes from one homologous chromosome to another during meiosis
nondisjunction failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during division
gene segment of DNA
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; instructions for making proteins
chromosome condensed strands of DNA
nitrogen base part of a nucleotide; adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
ribosome site of protein synthesis in cells
protein synthesis the process of making proteins
transcription first stage of protein synthesis; mRNA is created from a segment of DNA
translation second stage of protein synthesis; codons are read and amino acids are assembled into proteins
amino acid building block of proteins
mRNA messenger; copy of DNA instructions
tRNA transfer; brings amino acids to ribosomes
rRNA ribosomal; ribosomes- puts amino acids together
trait characteristic or attribute expressed by genes
mutation error or change in DNA bases
allele form of a gene
phenotype expression of a genotype; "how it looks"
genotype types of genes or allele combination
heterozygous genotype with two different alleles
homozygous genotype with two of the same alleles
dominant allele that hides the recessive and is always expressed
recessive allele masked by the dominant and can only show when 2 recessive alleles are present
hybrid two different alleles; heterozygous
sex-linked trait trait or gene carried on the sex chromosomes, usually x-linked
pedigree a diagram that shows the inheritance of a trait over generations
genetic engineering technology that involves the altering of genes and DNA in organisms
gene splicing removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism
recombinant DNA DNA formed by gene splicing
cloning creating identical genetic copies of organisms
gel electrophoresis tool and technique used to create a DNA fingerprint/banding pattern
DNA fingerprint an individual's unique sequence of DNA created using gel electrophoresis
Created by: jsills