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Bio 3.1 Vocab

chemistry, organic compounds, water, osmosis, cycles, photosynthesis/respiration

TermDefinition
hypothesis a possible answer or outcome for a scientific problem
bias showing an unfair preference or favoring one side; opinionated; swayed
independent variable the variable that is purposely changed and tested
dependent variable the variable being measured; the response to the I.V.
control group group used for comparison in an experiment
constants all factors that stay the same
trials the number of times a test is repeated in an experiment
data information gathered during an experiment; can be qualitative or quantitative
polarity having an unequal distribution of charges (+ and -)
solvent a substance that dissolves another
solute substance being dissolved
hydrophobic "water-fearing"; will not mix with water
hydrophillic "water-loving"; mixes with water
surface tension stronger attractive force of water molecules on the top surface of water
capillary action the upward movement of water through narrow tubes
homeostasis state of maintaining constant, stable conditions for survival
cell membrane thin, flexible, semi-permeable barrier that surrounds all cells
selectively permeable able to choose what enters and exits
diffusion the movement of molecules from high to low concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water across a membrane
concentration gradient force that moves molecules with the natural flow from high to low concentration
isotonic equal concentration; water enters and exits a cell at the same rate
hypotonic lower water concentration inside a cell; water enters the cell and it swells
hypertonic lower water concentation outside the cell; water exits the cell and it shrinks
passive transport transport in/out of a cell with no energy required
compounds a combination of two or more elements
reactants what you begin a chemical reaction with
products the end result of a chemical reaction
pH measure of how acidic or basic a substance is
acid substance with a pH below 7
base substance with a pH above 7
organic compound that contains carbon
inorganic compound that does not contain carbon
carbohydrate biological macromolecule that provides energy for living organisms; made up of monosaccarides
lipid biological macromolecule that makes up cell membranes, acts as insulation, is a source of stored energy, etc.; made up of fatty acids
monosaccarides building block of all carbohydrates; simple sugar
fatty acid building block of all lipids
glucose important carbohydrate used for energy; made during photosynthesis and broken down during cell respiration
cellulose carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of plant cells
starch complex carbohydrate that is stored sugar in plants
glycogen complex carbohydrate that is stored sugar in animals
phospholipid lipid that makes up the cell membranes of all cells
cholesterol lipid that helps with nervous system and brain functioning
protein important macromolecule that helps control cell reactions and builds tissues in living organisms; made up of amino acids
nucleic acid important macromolecule that carries genetic information and synthesizes proteins; made up of nucleotides
amino acid building block of proteins
nucleotide building block of nucleic acids; has 3 parts: sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
polypeptide a long chain of amino acids; the completed protein
enzyme a type of protein that speeds up and controls chemical reaction rates in living organisms
catalyst another term for enzyme
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; type of nucleic acid that holds genetic information; forms a double helix
RNA ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that helps synthesize proteins
vitamin organic compounds needed in small amounts for proper growth and health
mineral inorganic compounds important to cell and body functioning
chloroplast cell organelle where photosynthesis takes place; make glucose for plants
chlorophyll pigment that captures sunlight for photosynthesis
photosynthesis process in plants where light energy is used to change CO2 and H2O into food (glucose)
chemosynthesis process in bacteria where inorganic chemicals are converted into food; no light needed
mitochondria cell organelle where cellular respiration takes place; releases energy from glucose
ATP chemical energy made during cellular respiration
cellular respiration process in plants and animals where energy is released from glucose; requires oxygen
aerobic process that needs oxygen
anaerobic process that does not need oxygen
fermentation anaerobic process in yeast and bacteria where energy is released from glucose without oxygen
Active Transport transport in and out of cell that requires energy, going against the gradient.
Facilitated diffusion diffusion "helped" by transport proteins. A type of passive transport.
Transport protein proteins that help molecules across the cell membrane
endocytosis cell surrounds and engulfs material too big to pass through cell membrane
exocytosis cell expels material too big to pass through the cell membrane - pushes it out.
Peptide bond "glue" that holds the amino acids together
Duration how long the experiment lasts
Conclusion summary of what happened during the experiment
Experiment a test carried our to determine the validity of an hypothesis.
Data the information collected during the experiment. Can be quantitative or qualitative.
Qualitative Data data gotten by using your senses - see, hear, touch, taste, smell.
Quantitative Data numerical data - numbers
Variable any factor or condition that can be controlled or changed.
Solution mixing of solute and solvent.
Energy ATP; the ability to do work.
Endothermic to take in, or absorb heat from the environment.
Exothermic to release heat into the environment
Metabolism rate at which your body burns energy.
Adhesion water sticks to other things.
Cohesion water sticks to other water molecules.
Element substance that cannot be broken down any further.
Monomer a building block, or puzzle piece
Polymer the finished product, or completed puzzle
Vitamin A for vision, immune system health, bone development,making red blood cells. found in fish and carrots.
Vitamin C for growth and repair of body tissues. found in citrus fruit.
Vitamin K important for proper blood clotting. In leafy green vegetables.
Vitamin D health of teeth and bones. Added to milk.
Bacteria a prokaryote; a one-celled organism with no nucleus and very few organelles
Bacteriophage a virus that infects and replicates inside of a bacteria.
Toxin a poison
Vaccine an injection of a killed microbe/germ to build immunity against it.
Cell the smallest, basic unit of life
Prokaryote a simple cell without a nucleus and has very few organelles.
Eukaryote Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane bound organelles.
Cell Wall provides structure and support for plant cells; made of cellulose.
Cell Membrane cells barrier; controls what enters and exits the cell; made of phospholipids.
Nucleus Control center of the cell that contains DNA instructions; "brain" of the cell.
DNA (cell unit) genetic material located in the nucleus of eukaryotes and found free floating in prokaryotes.
Ribosome organelle that makes proteins
Vacuole used for temporary storage of waste, water, food and other materials in cells; much bigger in plant cells.
Lysosomes cells "clean-up crew"; break down old, damaged cell parts and contain enzymes for cellular digestion. ( Think; "Lysol")
mitochondria site of cellular respiration, where energy is released from glucose using oxygen. cells "powerhouse."
Organelle "Tiny organs." Parts of the cell that do specific jobs.
Cytoplasm "jelly-like" substance the organelles float in.
Golgi Apparatus/bodies sorts and packages material for transport around the cell. like the cells "post office."
Nucleolus inside nucleus; makes ribosomes.
Vascular Tissue Xylem and phloem; Used in plants to circulate water, sugar and other nutrients to all cells of the plant.
Hemoglobin protein in blood that carries oxygen.
Cilia short, hair-like projections used for cellular movement. "silly little hairs"
Flagella long, whip-like projection used for cellular movement.
Pseudpodia cytoplasmic projections used for movement. like a "false foot."
Homeostasis state of maintaining constant, stable, balanced conditions for survival. Also referred to as dynamic equilibrium.
Circulatory System (blood) transports water, oxygen and nutrients to cell, and takes waste away from cells
Respiratory System exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the blood.
Endocrine System produces chemicals and hormones for use in chemical reactions.
Excretory System filters and releases metabolic (liquid) waste from the body via the kidneys; keeps salt and water balance.
Nervous System sends electrical signals throughout the body for function and communication.
Skeletal System bones; for structure, support and protection
Muscular System for movement; both voluntary and involuntary muscles.
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction where no egg and sperm are involved; offspring are produced from one parent cell and are identical to parent.
Sexual Reproduction reproduction where egg and sperm are united to form offspring. Offspring are unique.
Budding Asexual reproduction where offspring grow on parent cell; Yeast.
Binary Fission asexual reproduction in bacteria where the cell splits into two.
Vegetative Reproduction asexual reproduction in plants where the offspring are produced without seeds or spores.
Malignant Tumor Harmful, cancerous growth of cells
Gamete a sex cell; egg and sperm
Codon A set of 3 bases that code for an amino acid; A-U-G = 1 codon
Dominant Trait The trait that shows - shown by the capital letter and always hides the recessive; Tt
Recessive trait Trait hidden by the dominant - only shows when 2 recessive genes combine; tt
Sex-linked trait Trait that is attached to the "X" chromosome; also called "X" linked trait.
Incomplete Dominance 2 traits combine to make an in-between trait - red flower + white flower = pink flower offspring.
Co- dominance 2 traits shown equally in offspring; black chicken + white chicken = checkered (black and white) chicken.
Pedigree A genetics family tree; shows how traits move through family generations.
Genetic engineering Technology that involves altering genes and DNA in organisms; how we obtain different dog breeds.
Gene Splicing Removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism.
Recombinant DNA formed by gene splicing
Cloning creating an identical GENETIC copy of an organism.
Gel electrophoresis Technique used to create a DNA fingerprint/banding pattern.
DNA fingerprint An individuals unique sequence of DNA that's created by using gel electrophoresis.
Created by: jsills