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Seizures

QuestionAnswer
What are some of the causes for seizures? Tumor, acidosis, hypogycemia, hypoxia, extracranial disorders, alcohol and or barbituate withdrawls
How many seizures does a pt have to have to be an epileptic? 2 or more
At what point is epilepsy high? First year of life and elderly years
When do epileptic seizures decline and plateau? childhood and adolescence and adulthood
Who are more at risk for seizures? Males, African Americans
When the whole brain is involved, what type of seizure is it? A generalized seizure
What are Astrocytes? New meds focusing on decreasing glutamate
What order do the phases of a seizure occur?> prodromal phase, aura phase, Ictal phase, Postictal phase
When adults come in w a seizure, how are they treated? As if they have a tumor
What is the cardio drug used for seizures? Lidocaine
what is gliosis? scar tissue
What phase is missing in a generalized seizure? phase 2, aural phase
What does tonic/clonic mean? Stiffening and jerking of body
What is a tonic clonic seizure aka? grand mal (generalized)
What happens during a grand mal seizure? fall down, tonic-clonic, cyanosis, eyes blinking, drooling, LOC, loss of bladder and bowel control
What type of seizures are common in children? absence seizure (petite mal) generalized
What are the characteristics of a petite mal? eyes flutter upward for 3-20 seconds, vacant stare and lack of response
If a child has a absence, petite mal seizure, will they always have them? May disappear at puberty or develop into another type of seizure
Which seizures are brought on by strobe lights? Atypical Absence seizures
Which type of seizure is characterized by sudden very brief jerk of the body? Myoclonic
Which type of seizure is characterized by falling, loss of muscle tone, LOC with regain of consciousness by the time they hit the floor? Akinetic AKA atonic AKA astatic seizure
What is the primary difference between generalized and partial seizures? generalized= whole brain is involved, partial= specific region of cortex, however, may spread and end up involving entire brain
How do simple and complex partial seizures differ? simple=no LOC, complex=LOC
What are the different types of simple partial seizures? Motor – convulsion in the upper extremity Somatosensory – numbness & tingling in the affected area Automatic – epigastric sensations, pallor, sweating, flushing, tachycardia Psychic – aura, subjective sensation Auditory-ringing or hiss, visual-flashes
What are automatisms? lip-smacking, picking, patting, chewing, picking
What type of seizure have automatisms? complex petite mal
How is status epilepticus classified? persists >30 mins or repeatedly without return to consciousness between seizures
Which takes more energy? A persistent seizure or repeated without regaining consciousness? repeated without regaining consciousness
What are possible complications from seizures? insufficient ventliation, hypoxemia, brain damage, hyperthermia, cardiac arrythmias, systemic acidosis, injury
Psychologically, how can a seizure disorder affect a patient? social stigma
When looking for a seizure, what are some other disorders that are ruled out? metabolic disorders, brain lesions
What is the acronym for seizure management? "CAN DO" C-be calm, A-void injury, N-note the time the seizure starts, D-dont try to restrain them or put anything in their mouth, O-do not obstruct the airway (May need O2 and suction after)
Which meds are use tonic-clonic, generalized seizures and partial seizures? Dilantin, Tegretol, phenobarbitual, Depakote
Which meds are used for absence/akinetic & myoclonic Zarotonin, Depakote, Klonopin
What are the second generation drugs for seizures? Neurontin, Topamax, and Lyrica as an add on drug
What are some of the neurological SE from anti-seizure meds? decreased LOC, ataxia, diplopia, slow cognitive function and alertness
What are some of the Idiosyncratic effects outside the CNS skin rash, gingival hyperplasia, blood dyscrasias, liver, & kidney problems, decreased labidio, ED
At what point may a seizure med may be discontinued? May consider discontinuing medications if the person is seizure-free for 2 years (no epilepsy waves on EEG)
When are surgical options considered? When drug therapy doesn't work
What are the surgical options? removal of the epileptic focus, multiple sub-pial transection (a series of cuts to isolate sections), separate 2 hemispheres to prevent spread of actvity
What type of implant may be permanently inserted? Vagal nerve simulator that delivers intermittent electrical stimulation to the brain to reduce frequency and intensity of seizures (desynchronize)
What are some alternative therapies? Biofeedback using EEG and relaxation Alternative therapy Ketogenic diet
What are patient teaching priorities? Do not operate a motor vehicle or dangerous machinery (even kitchen knife), Take meds, Use a microwave for cooking, non-contact sports with supervision, Swim with the presence of lifeguard; shower instead of taking a bath, Medical alert bracelet
Created by: brebre273