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Antibiotics

USMLE antibiotic pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
List the Beta-lactams antibiotics. Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams.
List the non-Beta-lactam cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Vancomycin, Fosfomycin
List the antibiotic protein synthesis inhbitors. Aminoglycosides, macrolides/ketolides, clindamycin, tetracyclines/glycylcyclines, streptogramins, chloramphenicol/linezolid
List antibiotic inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis or function. Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, nitroimidazoles (metronidazole).
List the antimycobacterial drugs. Rifamycins (rifampin), isoniazid/pyrazinamide/ethambutol, aminoglycosidases/fluoroquinolones.
Antibiotics that should be avoided during pregnancy. Tetracyclines, glycylcyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides (erythromycin esolate, clarithromycin), fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides.
Beta lactam description bactericidal antibiotics that inhibit transpeptidases to block cell wall synthesis. Ineffective to Gram negative bacteria and may cause superinfection due to enzyme degradation resistance. Also common cause of hypersensitivity reactions (II and III).
Time-dependent bactericidal antibiotic. Penicillin, cephalosporins, vancomycin common feature.
Superinfection causing potential. Penicillin, cephalosporins, clindamycin
Concentration-dependent bactericidal antibiotics. Carbepenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones.
Inhibit cell wall synthesis by inhibiting transpeptidases. Usually ineffective against gram negative bacteria. A major cause of hypersensitivity reactions. Beta-lactams.
Bacterostatic antibiotics. Macrolides and ketolides (erythromycin, clarythromycin), clindamycin, tetracyclins and glycylcyclines, chloramphenicol (linezolid)
Inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting transglycosylase. Vancomycin
Inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting enolpyruvate transferase Fosfomycin
Created by: 45203472