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Opthalmic Ch. 43


Miosis Contraction of the iris sphincter muscle, which causes the pupil to narrow
Mydriasis Contraction of the dilator muscle and relaxation of the sphincter muscle, which causes the pupil to dilate
Open Angle Glaucoma reduced outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular network and Schlemm's canal because of resistance of the aqueous humor outflow; the iridocorneal angle is open.
Closed/Narrow Angle Glaucoma Sudden increase of IOP caused by mechanical obstruction of the trabecular network in the iridocoroneal angle.
Osmotic agents (isosorbide/Ismotic)) Reduces volume of intraocular fluid
Carbonic Andhydrase Inhibitors (acetazolimide/Diamox) Inhibit carbonic andhydrase resulting in a decrease in the production of aqueous humor, thus lowering IOP
Cholinergic agents (pilocarpine/Isopto-carpine) Produces strong contractions of the iris and ciliary body
Cholinesterase Inhibitors (echothiophate iodide/Phospholine iodide) Used when Cholinergic agents don't work. Prevents metabolism of acetylcholine resulting in increased cholinergic activity which decreases IOP.
Adrenergic agents (phenylephrine/Neophrine; brimonidine/Alphagan P) Cause pupil dilation, increased outflow of aqueous humor, vasconstriction, relaxation of ciliary muscle
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers (timolol maleate/Timoptic) Used to reduce IOP. They are thought to reduce the production of aqueous humor.
Prostiglandin Agonists(latanoprost/Xatalan) OOG Increases outflow of aqueous humor. May causee eye pigment changes
Anticholinergic agents (atropine sulfate/Isopto-atropine) Relax smooth muscle of the ciliary body and iris to produce mydriasis and cyclopegia.
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents
Created by: J777