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Antiepileptic/Parkin

Pharm 11-Antiepileptic and Antiparkinson

QuestionAnswer
Compare and contrast Seizures and Epilpsy A seizure is a hyperexcitation of neurons in the brain leading to abnormal electric activity that. Epilepsy is a group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior, loss of con
Care of a seizure safety, side rails bed with pad, closed to nursing station, helmet…
Signs of seizures A sudden, violent involuntary series of contractions of a group of muscle
Assess following a seizure Immediate VS including O2 sat, Lung sounds, bruises, redness, area in contact with surface
Types of generalized seizures Grand mal or tonic-clonic, myoclonic, absence, and status epilepticus
Types of partial seizures Simple partial and complex partial
Epilepsy vs Seizure No cure for epilepsy, tx aims to decrease the number of seizures
Goal of anticonvulsants control seizures activities with minimal side effects
Part of cerebrum cortex and medulla
Where is the gray matter Cerebral cortex, outer part, NO regeneration
Where is the white matter Cerebral medulla, inner part, CAN regenerate
What is the difference btw white and gray matter White is myelenated, can regenerate. Gray unmyelenated, protected into bony structure, can’t regenerate
Part of the Brain cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum
Part cerebrum cortex and medulla
Part of the brainstem thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, and medulla oblongata
Part of Spinal cord cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
Network of nerves and brain areas involved in regulating ALERTNESS, WAKEFULNESS, AND SLEEP Reticular formation
Network of nerves and brain areas involved in EMOTIONAL and BEHAVIORAL responses Limbic system
Where do addiction occurs in the brain? Reticular Activation System
RAS Reticular Activation System
Where do drug dependency occurs? Limbic System
Where do responses to fear, anger, anxiety, sexual behavior, and reward and punishment occur? Limbic system
Luminal BARBITURATE
Dilantin HYDANTOIN
Tegretol CARBAMAZEPINE
Depakene VALPROIC ACID
Zarontin SUCCINIMIDE
Tridione OXAZOLIDINEDIONE
Diazepam, Valium BENZODIAZEPINE
Klonopin BENZODIAZEPINE
Gabapentin (Neurontin) Used for partial seizures, Increase effects of GABA
Indicated Drugs for partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures Barbiturates, Hydantoin and Carbamazepine
Barbiturates Phenobarbital (Luminal) and mephobarbital (Mebaral)
Barbiturates (Luminal) mechanism of action GABA is a brain slower and barbiturate increase the action of GABA, slower activity
Most common adverse effects of babiturates (Luminal) SEDATION, DROWSINESS, DEPENDANCE, dizziness, mental confusion, headache, and rash.
Hydantoin Phenytoin (Dilantin) most frequently used seizure med
Mechanism of action for Hydantoin (Dilantin) Decrease the actions of sodium and reduce hyperexcitability of nerve cells in the brain
Common adverse effects hydantoin (Dilantin) GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA, BRADYCARDIA, postural imbalance, hirsutism
Gingival hyperplasia Overgrowth of the gum tissue, indicator for using hydantoin (Dilantin)
Adverse effects Carbamazepine (Tegretol) LIVER DISTURBANCES AND BONE MARROW DEPRESSION, Nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, and diplopia; less frequently
Valproic acid(Depakene) mechanism of action GABA is a brain slower and barbiturate increase the action of GABA, slower activity
Indications for Valproic acid (Depakene) Absence and myoclonic seizures
Most serious effect of Valproic acid (Depakene) Hepatotoxicity, Severely toxic to the liver. Less sedation (clients are more functional)
Succinimides Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
Indication for Succinimides (Zarontin) Absence seizures or petit mal
Adverse effects of Succinimides (Zarontin) GI disturbances, drowsiness, dizziness, and less frequently blood disorders
Oxazolindindione Trimethadione (Tridione), Very limited used
Indication for Oxazolindindione (Tridione) Absence seizures
Adverse effects for Oxazolindindione (Tridione) LIVER AND KIDNEY DAMAGE, Sedation, rash, visual disturbance
Benzodiazepine Diazepam (Valium), Clonazepam (Klonopin)
Mechanism of Benzodiazepine Increase the effects of GABA
Route for Benzodiazepine IV or IM to stop seizures, orally in the tx of myoclonic, akinetic, and absence seizures
Adverse effects for Benzodiazepine Sedation, dizziness, rash, and minor GI disturbances
What is the problem with Parkinsons Not enough dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter
Tx of Parkinson Increase the level of dopamine
Levodopa Taken orally can be converted to dopamine in basal ganglia, dopamine agonist
Sinemet combination of levodopa and carbidopa to increase the amount of dopamine that enters the brain
Eldepryl Parkinson drug used at an early stage
All the drugs Luminal#BARBITURATE Dilantin#HYDANTOIN Tegretol#CARBAMAZEPINE Depakene#VALPROIC ACID Zarontin#SUCCINIMIDE Tridione#OXAZOLIDINEDIONE Diazepam, Valium#BENZODIAZEPINE Klonopin#BENZODIAZEPINE
Created by: fausfez