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AHExam2

Cardio

QuestionAnswer
What are the two shockable rhythms? Vtach (no pulse), Vfib
What does no p waves means? Atrial fibrillation
What does a P wave represent Atrial Depolization,
What part of the sinus rhythm represents a ventricular depolarization (QRS)
Which rhythms do you defibrillate? Vtach (no pulse), Vfib
What medication would patient be on if they have STEMI Heparin
Major complication of a fib Stroke
A blood thinner. Given IV if pt’s waiting for Cardiac Cath. Heparin
Medication used when person has chest pain Nitro -- MONA
What category of drug is ASA? Anti-platelet
For diabetics (protection) and renal failure. Side effect is Cough. Push over 2 mins. Ace inhbitors – (prils)
lowers HR, NO for asthmatics and bradycardics Beta-Blockers – (olol)
bella donna, beautiful women. Increases HR. (T for Tachy) Atropine
Stops the heart (d for die) Adenosine
How do you treat pernicious anemia? – B12 (nasal, subq, or IV)
What type of anemia requires iron supplements, causes constipation (stool softeners, and stools will be blk) Iron deficiency anemia-
Precaution for neutropenic (leukemia) – check temp Q4hrs, high white blood cell count, functionally neutropenia,leukopenia,
What should be done if Neutropenic (leukemia)patient spikes a fever? Antibiotics need to be given w/in 1 hour.
Who gets Neutropenic (leukemia)? Cancer pts, can’t fight infection, immunocompromised
If you see a HIT patient with platelets dropping what would you do? Stop heparin, look at #3 on EXAM SHEET
Hemophilia (teaching) lack factors and correcting factor loss by giving factors Von Willenbrands = Factor 10
When do we give platelets? Below 10
Hemoglobin (Blood) below 7.
Mylodyplasia and multipl myloma (hypercalcimia) should avoid contact sports
How long should you monitor a transfusion and if a patient gets a fever during the transfusion what should be done 15mins, stop if fever
Pacing (pacer pads) is for bradycardia or 3rd degree block
Defibrillation is done on Vtach or Vfib(worst).
Vtach you Cardiovert(Cardiac Trump) to RESET.
PR interval are ( shortened or lengthened)in 1st degree block, block from SA node to AV node? lengthened, asymptomatic (not emergent)
2nd (mobits 2) and 3rd degree block require a Pacemaker
Pt w/ block should be hooked up to monitor with pacer pads.
Used to be the big mortality risk w/rheumatic fever. S/S – low grade fever, weakness, malaise, fatigue, myalgia, splinter hemorrhages, janeway’s lesions, roth’s spots, MURMUR Endocarditis (Inflammatory disorder) – #13, 41, 45 on EXAM SHEET
Rt sided HF S/S JDV, peripheral edema, weight gain, ascites, Enlarged Liver & Spleen
Lt sided HF S/S Pulmonary (crackles, pink frothy sputum), Tachypnea/cardiac, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dypnea
Teaching w/ HF Cold-Wet person is the worst (AMS, decreased O2, shock)5lbs in a week or 2lbs in a day. DAILY WEIGHT, DASH DIET, DON’T GIVE BETA-BLOCKERS!Compliance w/meds, esp Lasix, which can cause hypokalemia; take at night. Maintain skin integrity
CAD is caused by: atherosclerosis (hardened arteries)
Angina Risks: a. Chronic Stable – Ie: mowing the lawn. b. Acute Coronary Syndrome –i. Unstable Angina - Worst, because it’s sudden. ii. Acute MI (STEMI and NSTEMI) iii. Women and Diabetics don't get chest pain. Usually get n/v, or upset stomach
MI Diagnose: Acute Failure: General Failure: Acute Failure: Troponin/CK General Failure: Troponin/BNP
Major Comp of MI: Stroke, dysrhythmias, heart failure, shock
Inhibits ADH (prevents holding fluids; elevated indicates a probable or very probable diagnosis of heart failure. Also Inhibits ADH (prevents holding fluids) BUN
Lets you see electrical impulses of the heart EKG
for heart failure, because mechanical function of the heart. ECHO
Untreated HTN crisis major complication STROKE
Untreated HTN crisis Risk Factors: smoking, age, family hx, sugar/weight, lipids
Untreated HTN crisis Dx: 3 separate readings
Untreated HTN crisis Tx: O2, cardiac monitor, 15min reassessment, sit them, assess BP q2mins
Untreated HTN crisis teaching: lifestyle modification
Who gets mitral valve problems, endocarditis? (how? and Teaching? Ppl with rheumatic fever; strep throught, PNC cure
Arterial Problem S/S – no oxygen, blue, no hair growth, no pooling, shiny, thin skin, infectious dry ulcers
Venous Problem S/S blood can’t return to the heart, blood pools, gets oxygen, pink or red, swollen, not shiny, not infectious wet ulcers, elevate and compress.
PAD is at high risk for infectious ulcer.
DVT Risks: Virchow’s Triad (Stasis of blood flow, Endothelial Injury, Hypercoagulability)
DVT Prevention: TED/SCD, Drug prophylaxis, heparin, Coumadin, LMWH, Clot buster, IVC filter.
DVT Major comp: PE (Pulmonary Embolism)
Hogkins’s – Reed-Sternberg’s Cells
Aortic Aneurysm causes no blood flow to the legs: cool, pallor
DIC – Disseminate, Intravascular, Coagulation Risk Factors: After surgery, vaginal birth, cancer, sepsis.
No pulse= CPR Start CPR while waiting to shock them
Ranges: Hemoglobin for Females: Males Hematocrit for Female: Males WBC = Platelets = Ranges: Hemoglobin for Females: 11.7 – 16 Males 13.2 -17.3 Hematocrit for Female: 35%-47% Males 39%-50% WBC = 4000 – 11,000 Platelets = 150,000 – 400,000
a. Prevent development of Heart Failure in pts w/MI. b. First line of immunity for chronic heart failure. c. Can cause hypotension after the initial dose Ace inhibitors (prils)
Created by: lalad13