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Neuro and Senses

Neuro and Special Senses Review

TermDefinition
Ability to receive and process stimuli through sensory organs Sensation
Ability to experience, recognize, organize, and interpret sensory stimuli Perception
Intellectual ability to think Cognition
Person’s awareness of time, place, self, and/or situation impaired Disorientation
Secondary to pathologic change of bones in middle ear; Most common conductive hearing loss Otosclerosis
Inflammation of middle ear Otitis media
Bacterial infection of external ear canal Otitis Externa
Inflammation of cornea Keratitis
Disorder that causes lens or its capsule to lose transparency and/or become opaque Cataract
Disorder characterized by abnormally high pressure of fluid inside eyeball Glaucoma
Inflammation of conjunctiva Conjunctivitis
Inability of eyes to focus in same direction Strabismus
Nearsightedness; Vision for near objects is better than for far. Light focuses before the retina Myopia
Farsightedness; Vision being better for distant objects than for near. Light focuses after the retina Hyperopia
Inability of lens to change curvature in order to focus; Light rays dissolve and vision is blurred Presbyopia
Asymmetric focus of light rays on retina; Light focuses at two points Astigmatism
Central visual acuity 20/200 or less with corrective lenses Blindness
A progressive deterioration of the maculae of the retina; Central vision lost, but peripheral vision remains Macular degeneration
A separation of the retina from the retinal pigment epithelium in the back of the eye Retinal Detachment
An affliction characterized clinically by vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and progressive hearing loss due to hydrops of the endolymphatic duct Menieres disease
A sensation of instability, giddiness, loss of equilibrium, or rotation, caused by a disturbance in the semicircular canal of the inner ear or the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem Vertigo
Involuntary, rhythmic movements of the eyes Nystagmus
An impaired ability to coordinate movement, often characterized by a staggering gait and postural imbalance Ataxia
Paralysis of one side of the body Hemiplegia
An increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorder as marked by greater intensity in the signs or symptoms of the patient being treated Exacerbation
A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause Parasthesia
The loss of muscle function, sensation, or both Paralysis
Condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words Aphasia
What are the different part of nervous system? CNS, PNR, ANS
Part of Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord
Part of Peripheral Nervous System Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves
Divisions of autonomic Nervous system Sympathetic (fight and flight) and Parasympathetic (rest and digest)
Part of the spinal cord Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccyx,
Part of Cerebrum Cerebro-cortex and Cerebro-medulla
Divisions of Brainstem thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, and medulla oblongata
A chemical that modifies or results in the transmission of nerve impulses between synapses Neurotransmitter
How are neurotransmitter important? That’s where drugs act to inhibit or excite a response
Location where neurotransmitters travel form the axon to the dendrites Synapse
Insulates the neurons and allows faster transmission of electrical impulses Myelin
What is included in a neuro assessment? Headache, Clumsiness, Loss or change in function of extremity, Seizure activity, Numbness or tingling
Define LOC and how is it assessed Level of Consciousness is the degree of a patient's alertness and awareness of self and environment
Why is LOC an important indicator of neurological status? It helps assess the functions of the brain and response of nerves, recognize seizures and/or risk for seizures.
What does PERRLA mean? When is it used? Pupils Equals, Round, reactive to Light and Accommodation. Used when assessing a client
ICP Intracranial pressure; Pressure within the cranial cavity
Why is an increase in ICP a potential problem? Some organs can be damaged when high pressure occurs
Review neuro status posturing Flexor (Decorticate), Extensor (Decerebrate), Flaccid.
What does flexion and extension postures look like? Flexion=Arms flexed, or bent inward on the chest, hands clenched into fists, and legs extended and feet turned inward; Extension=Head arched back. Extended elbows. The arms and legs are extended and rotated internally.
Why is lumbar puncture used, to diagnose what? Radiographic visualization of the structures of the nervous system of the spinal canal and meninges and brain. Used for meningitis
CVA and TIA CVA is Brain attack or stroke, hemorrhage into the brain or occlusion of the cerebral vessels from an embolism or thrombosis; TIA is an episode of cerebrovascular insufficiency (mini stroke)
What are symptoms of CVA and TIA CVA=Neurological deficits of sensation, movement, thought, memory, and speech; TIA=Disturbance of normal vision in one or both eyes, dizziness, weakness, dysphasia, numbness, or unconsciousness
What are risk factors for TIA/CVA? Same as MI, age, nutrition, history
Treatment of Herniated Intervertebral Disk Rest, stress reduction, immobility of spine
What is the focus of treatment of Parkinson disease Neurotransmitters
Chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of central nervous system, Characterized by loss of myelin Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
What type of illness is ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) is Fatal, Degeneration of motor neurons in cortex, medulla, and spinal cord
What occurs with Guillain-Barre Acute inflammatory process involving motor and sensory neurons of peripheral nervous system
Where does Guillain-Barre start? Lower extremities and ascends bilaterally
Course of Guillain-Barre Demyelination begins in distal nerves and ascends symmetrically and Remyelination occurs from proximal to distal
Inflammation of brain Encephalitis
Inflammation of meninges Meningitis
Cause of Encephalitis and Meningitis Virus, bacteria (contagious), fungi, or parasites
Describe Huntington’s disease Chronic, progressive hereditary disease of nervous system. Mental or intellectual impairment progresses to dementia, Death usually results from heart failure, pneumonia, infection, or choking
Treatment and prevention of Huntington’s disease Must collaborate with social worker, chaplain, physician, and mental health worker
What is Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome? Possible type of symptoms? Neurological movement disorder, Prominent behavioral manifestations
Abnormal condition characterized by slowness of all voluntary movement and speech Bradykinesia
Created by: fausfez