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Erickson Developmental stage/2 outcomes positive or negative Trust/Mistrust, Autonomy/shame and doubt, Initiative/Guilt, Industry/Inferiority, Identity/role confusion, Intimacy/Isolation, Generativity/self-absorption, Integrity/Despair
Sullivan Intrapersonal relationships,Grief-role disputes-role conflict-interpersonal deficit
Paplau Nurse-patient relationship, nursing process, steps of care
Pavlov classical conditioning, dog, unconscious response
Skinner Operant conditioning: voluntary behaviors are learned through consequences and behavioral responses are elicited through reinforcement which causes a behavior to occur more frequently...+ or - reinforcement.provides method for replac/modify of behaviors
Maslow Hierarchy of needs. What needs should come first (Humanistic theory)
Beck Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) How ppl behave is determined by the way they think about the world and their place in it. (Change way they think to decrease sxs)
Ellis Rational-emotive behavior therapy, help recognize thoughts that are not accurate, sensible or useful: A (activating event) B (beliefs) C (emot'l consequence)
Freud Father of psychology: psychosexual development Hypnosis, conscious, preconscious unconscious Personality structure: ID, Ego, Superego
Milieu Hospital, controlled setting, allows for basic interventions in the nursing practice
Approaches to psychotherapy Individual, group, cognitive, family, crisis intervention
Individual psychotherapy Focus: why this is occurring, change thought/behavior and identify success Goals: improved functioning with good results....ST
Levels of individual therapy Supportive: from therapist, relaxed Re-educative: new ways to teach change, goal oriented and intense Reconstructive: used with deep problems, 3-5 years, LT
Activity therapies Increase client's awareness of feelings, behaviors, thoughts and sensations through: recreation, art, music, pets, dance, etc Allows pt to express, create, demonstrate strengths
Alternative therapies Healing philosophies, therapies Acupuncture, massage, touch
Milieu Nurse role: physiological needs, reality orientation, meds, one-on-one relationship, provide limits with behaviors, education, interaction, assist with atmosphere and culture
Principles of Milieu therapy: Decor (calm colors) Safety (primary concern, locks) Spiritual
Therapeutic Groups Group therapy, task groups, teaching groups, support groups (Breast Cancer), self-help (NA, AA)
Phases of group therapy: Orientation, Working, Termination
Group therapy: Meet with therapist, share and talk and add personal insight, develop functional relationships and relate openly
Yaloms's curative factors for group therapy: Instill hope, universitality, imparting info., altruism (support), corrective recapitulation of family group, socialization techniques, imitative behavior, interpersonal learning, cohesiveness, catharsis, existential factors
Leadership styles: Autocratic: control information given to group Democratic: encourage members to be involved Laissez-Faire: minimal direction from leader Constuctive feedback: letting ppl know how they affect e/o
Family therapy stages Single young adult, newly married couple, family with young children, family with adolescents, family launching older children, family in later life
Major concepts of family therapy: Differentiation of self (enmeshment) Triangles: 3 person emot'l figuration
Functional family: 6 elements Communication, self-concept reinforcement, family member experience, handling differences, family interaction patterns, and family climate
Functional families also: collaborate, accept, have affection, and can adapt: individuals need balance (homeostasis)
General Systems theory (family) System: greater than the sum of all its parts, dynamic and ever changing: a change in one part changes another---need differentiation of self, while remaining in touch
Goals identification Facilitate change in family structure: reduce dysfunctional behaviors, reduce conflict, encourage problem solving, and communication, heighten awareness of all members needs, coping with stress
Somatic Therapies: ECT Not 1st line, safe, release of chemicals and NTs helps alleviate depression
ECT Pre procedure Medically stable, EKG, lab work, educate, consent
ECT indications: AXIS 1 (depression, suicidal, schizophrenia, bipolar)
ECT CIs: ABSOOLUTE: increased ICP others: MI, severe osteoporosis
Nursing measures for ECT: no anticonvulsants in past 12 hours and ativan, no smoking in past 12 hours, no anti-cholinergic meds Major SE: memory impairment and confusion Preop: IM/IV Robinul (dries up secretions)
Intra op: ECT muscle relaxant (Anectine) and phenobarbital (anesthetic), bilateral or unilateral, 20-40 watts, seizure: 30 sec is therapeutic, may repeat, max in series is 200 seconds
Post op: ECT VS q 15x2 and q 30x3, assess orientation, offer fluids, prior to DC ambulate, assure ride, appt for follow-up procedure, dr appt. RISKS: minimal--mortality due to CV complications
Created by: schimmal