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science 10-13

Kristen's science test study cards

stalagtite an iciclelike mass of dripstone that forms on the ceiling of a cave
living fossils animals such as the coelecanth that disappear abruptly from thfossil record, yet are still alive today
puncutallted equilibrium hypothesis the evolutionary hypothesis which states that new kinds of organisms arise in just a few generations as a result of massive genetic rescramings
erosion general term for the carrying away of rock fragments such as by wind or running water
weathering general term for the process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature
mass waisting general term for movements of rock and soil caused by gravity
paleontology the study of fossils
sea stack pillar like structure of rock formed when the middle of a sea arch collapses
geological colomn a hypothetical evolutionary time scale that pposedly charts both the earth's history and the sequence of rock layers in the earth's crust
abrasian the sandblasing action of windblown sand
chymical, physical the two types of weathering
drainage basin a region of land drained by a stream or river system
meander winding, looping curve in a river on a flat flood plain
fossil the preserved remains of plants, animals or humans in sedimentary rock
ice age the perid of history during which much of the earth's high latitudes were apparently covered with glaciers
delta a fan shpaed deposit of sediments at the mouth of a river
stalagmite a spirelike mass of drpistone that forms on the floor of a cave
exfoliation type of weathering often associated with granite, that involeves the breaking or peeling away of rock in layers
drumlin low hill formed when advancing glacier overuns an old moraine
no transitional forms what is the most important evidence agains evolution?
special creation the belief that God called the universe andall that is in it into existence out of nothing
evolution the belief that the universe and all that is in it originated by natural processes over bllions of years
uniformitarianism false beliefthat all geological processes have always proceeded at the same rate
principle of uniformity states tht the same scientific laws in operation today have existed throughout the earth's history
australopitecines the fossil known as "lucy" is an exampl of this group of extinct apes
natural selection the idea that the fittest and strongest of heach species ae mre likely to survie and reproduce that weakr or unfit members of the species
Charles Darwin the British naturalist who popularized evolution with the book on The Origin of Species
mass the quantity of matter an object contains
3rd law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and oppote reaction
9.8 m/s acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface
velocity the speed of an object in a particular direction
Sir Issa Newtion formulated the laws of motion and gravitation
strong nuclear, weak nuclear, gravitational, electromagnetic the four fundamental forces of nature
inertia the tendency of matter to reist changes in motion
more slowly according the the second law of motion, a given force would cause a heavier object to accelerate________than a lighter object
at the same rate Galileo discovered that without air resistance, heavier objects fall_________as lighter objects when dropped
vector an arrow that represents the magnitude and direction of a physical quantity of a diagram
mechanics the branch of physics that deals with objects in motion
speed the distance coered by an object in a certain period of time, rate of motion
acceleration any change in speed, direction, or both
interferance the mutual reinforcement or cancellation that occurs when wo or more waves meet
decibel the unit usually used to measure sound intensity in the way that reflects how our ears perceive sound
defraction spreading out of a wav after it passs through a narrow opening
pitch the ffect offrequency on the way our ear perceives sound
constructive when two crests or two troughs of interfering waves coincide they strengthen each other
refraction the being of the path of a wave as a result of a change in wave speed, such as when crossing a boundary between medium
ultrasonic sound with a frequency above the ranceof human hearing
frequency the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a second
supersoic speeds faster than the speed of sound
hertz he SI unit of frequency equal to 1 wave or cycle per second
amplitude the maximum distance that paricles are displaced by a wave
law of reflection the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
longitudinal wave a series of compression and rarefaction pulses traveling along a spring
constructive, destructive the two kinds of wave interferences
wavelength the distance from one wave crest or trough to the next
overtones sounds produced by a musical instrument at highter frequencies than the funamental
doppler effect a change in sound frequency caused by an object's motion
infrasonic sound with a frequency below the rance of human hearing
medium the substance through which a wave transfers energy
wave a periodic back and forth motion that transmits energy through a substance
destructive interference the wave interference that occurs when the crest of o wave and a trough of another pass through each other, canceling each other out
reflection the change in the course of a wave as a result of a collision with an object
transverse waves a series of side to side wavestraveling along a rope
inverse square law sound intensity a sound at a distance of 1 meter is 100 times more intence than the same sound at a distance of 10 meters
crest the highest point of a wave
75 m/s what is the speed of water wave with a wavelength of 25 feet and frequency of 3 hz? ( speed= wavelength x frequency)
Created by: kbtarheelgirl