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TEAS Study Guide

Basic Science Vocabulary

Flow of energy due to a difference in temperature. Heat
The transition between the ______ and _____ phases of an atom (or molecule) is achieved by adding or removing heat from a system. liquid & gas
An alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid, and gas. Phase Transition
In which the atoms are arranged in a highly ordered state, to a state in which the atoms lack true order. Crystalline Order
Physical connection between atoms (or molecules) that does not alter the chemical nature of the atoms (or molecules) Physical Bonding
A molecule that possesses both positive and negative atomic structure. Polar Molecule
A metric temperature scale that is defined (at a standard pressure) by the melting point of ice (0 degrees C) and the boiling point of water (100 degrees C) Celsius
The ratio of mass per volume for a substance. Density
A metric temperature scale defined by an absolute zero reference point (0 K= -273degrees C) Kelvin Scale
The temperature and pressure at which water will coexist as a solid, liquid, and gas. triple-point
The energy required to raise one unit of mass of a substance by 1 degree C Specific Heat
The amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas. Heat of Evaporation
Elements that may accept or donate electrons readily, and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties. Metalloids
A metallic ion or positive ion Cation
A nonmetallic ion or negative ion Anion
Similar attractions for electrons Electronegativities
The electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges. Ionic
Sharing of electrons between atoms. Covalent
Like methane, propane, and butane bond to hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons
Saturated hydrocarbons;single bonds; most basic structure of the hydrocarbons (CnH2n+n) Alkanes
Have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Double bonds. Alkenes
Triple Bonds Alkynes
Solutions with a pH value less than 7 (weak acids) acidic solutions
Solutions with a pH value greater than 7 (strong acids) basic solutions
Proteins that are water soluble; are built from amino acids that form chains ranging from a few dozen to thousands of members. Globular proteins
Value is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution, and a substrate is a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme. pH
Chemical reactions with a cell Metabolic pathways
The arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus Orbital Shells
Increase moving from left to right across a period (decreasing atomic radii); decreases moving down a group (increasing atomic radii) Ionization
Control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to come to a stable state. Catalysts
The molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme substrate
Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes
Anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter
The quantity of matter an object has. Mass
Substance that cannot be broken into simpler types of matter. Elements
Positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom. Proton
Neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom. Neutron
Negatively charged subatomic particles found in various energy levels (orbital shells) around the nucleus. Electron
Waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves
Wavelengths, ordered from SHORT to LONG ? gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves
Spectrum can be further subdivided by color bands from Long to Short. Name them. red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
A _____ is a piece of DNA on a chromosome that controls a particular genetic trait. gene
Multiple alternative forms to a gene; represented using letters alleles
When both parents give the offspring the same allele Homozygous
If each parent gives the offspring a different allele for a particular trait, the offspring is _________. heterozygous
The physical expressions of genetic traits. Phenotype
An organism's underlying genetic makeup or code is called? Genotype
A complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes. Genome
Erros during DNA replication Mutagen
Mechanisms inspect the DNA for types of damage and attempt to repair it. Excision repair
Reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum. Germ Cells
______________ are located in the nucleus of a cell and contain stretches of DNA called genes. Chromosomes
Each pieces of the code; composed of three of the bases Codon
Each codon matches to a specific ______ _____. Amino Acids
The process carried out by green plants, green algae, and certain bacteria. Photosynthesis
Energy from sunlight is trapped by the green pigment. Chlorophyll
Organisms that are able to carry out photosynthesis due to the specialized organelle is called..? Chloroplast
Organisms that cannot produce their own food. Heterotrophs
During cellular respiration, glucose is broken down by the process of __________, which transfers some of the energy in glucose to ATP. glycolysis
Then end-products of glycolysis are fed into the ____ ___ ___ (Krebs cycle) citric acid cycle
The cells that form a new organism via sexual reproduction are called..? Gametes
The process by which gametes reduce their DNA content is called..? Meiosis
Cells that contain two sets of chromosomes are know as..? (Everything but gametes) Diploid Cells
Cells that contain a single set of chromosomes are know as..? (Only gametes are) Haploid Cells
In a diploid cell, each individual chromosome has a twin chromosome called a ..? Homologous chromosome
Chromosomes with their sister chromatids line up on a plate. Metaphase
In mitosis, __________ begins separating the two sets of chromosomes into different cells. Cytokinesis
The spindle fibers form and the centrioles moves to opposite side of the cell. The nuclear membrane disappears. Prophase
The chromosomes align midway along the spindle fibers. Metaphase
The chromosomes begin to separate from their daughters. Cytokinesis begins. Anaphase
Identical sets of chromosomes are at opposites ends of the cell. Spindle fibers disappear, nuclear membranes reappear, and cytokinesis completes. Telophase
The process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell. Mitosis
Three phases of interphase and mitosis are..? G1, Interphase, G2
Contain sections called genes, which contain information that specifies the production of proteins Chromosomes
A chain of amino acids results in a _______. protein
The message stored in the bases of DNA must be transferred to the ribosomes to make proteins. Cells copy the instructions in the DNA to RNA Transcription
The process of protein production from messenger RNA is called.. ? Translation
Occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than other (survival of the fittest). Natural Selection
Changes in the DNA that affect the way a gene functions. Mutation
Some individuals of a species are better able to survive and adapt to the environment in which they live. Adaptation
Created by: ell0liz