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Oriole-DNA/RNA/Prot

vocab 4 DNA history,structure,replication,transcription,translation,protsynth

TermDefinition
adenine one of four nitrogen bases - always 'matches' with thymine OR uracil
amino acid building blocks of protein - contain nitrogen
base-pairing rules Erwin Chargaff developed these due to his observations of nitrogen base concentrations in DNA samples
complementary means that two things 'go together' (as opposed to saying nice things about someone…)
cytosine one of four nitrogen bases - always 'matches' with guanine
deletion genetic mutation that occurs during replication when nitrogen bases present in the original strand are 'left out' of the copied sequence
deoxyribose sugar used as the 'backbone' of a DNA nucleotide
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid…
DNA polymerase the enzyme that matches complementary nucleotides to each side of DNA during replication
DNA replication process of 'copying' both sides of the DNA molecule so that two new, identical DNA molecules are formed
DNA triplets / codes series/sequence of three nitrogen base 'letters' found in DNA
double helix shape of the DNA molecule in the nucleus (spiral staircase, twisted ladder)
Erwin Chargaff developed the base-pairing rules from his observations of nitrogen base concentrations in DNA samples
exons trimmed sections of mRNA that are put together into a blueprint for making protein and EXit the nucleus to be sent to the ribosomes
genes portion of the DNA/chromosome that 'codes' for a specific trait or protein
guanine one of four nitrogen bases - always 'matches' with cytosine
helicase enzyme that is responsible for unwinding and splitting the double helix of DNA during replication
hydrogen bonds how the nitrogen bases pair up and keep the two sides of the DNA molecule together - broken during replication and transcription
insertion genetic mutation that occurs during replication when additional nitrogen bases are added to the copied sequence
introns sections of mRNA that are 'trimmed out' of the message and are kept IN the nucleus to be recycled
messenger RNA type of nucleic acid that is responsible for carrying the copy of instructions for making protein out to the ribosomes
mRNA codons series/sequence of three nitrogen base 'letters' found in messenger RNA
mutation genetic anomoly that occurs to 'change' the sequence of nitrogen bases in copied DNA
nuclear pores intentional openings in the nuclear envelope (membrane) that allow for passage of mRNA
nucleotide subunit of DNA or RNA - composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four possible nitrogen bases
nucleus part of the cell that contains genetic material - the 'brain' of the cell
peptide bond specific type of covalent bond that attaches amino acids together in order to produce a functional protein
phosphate part of the DNA or RNA strand that connects sugars along the side(s) of those molecules
promoter portion of the DNA sequence that 'tells' RNA polymerase where to start copying the instructions for mRNA
protein molecule that results from putting chains of amino acids together with peptide bonds
purine type of nitrogen base that consists of a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms - includes adenine and guanine
pyrimidine type of nitrogen base that consists of a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms - includes thymine, cytosine, and uracil
replication fork the 'split-apart' area of the DNA molecule during the process of replication - occurs due to the action of helicase
ribosomal RNA type of nucleic acid of which the ribosomes are parly composed (the other part is protein)
ribosome organelle in the cell that is responsible for protein synthesis - the protein 'assembly line' of the cell
RNA polymerase enzyme responsible for unwinding and splitting DNA, then adding complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription
substitution genetic mutation that occurs during replication when an alternate sequence of nitrogen bases replace the correct sequence
terminator portion of the DNA sequence that 'tells' RNA polymerase where to stop copying the instructions for mRNA
thymine one of four nitrogen bases - always 'matches' with adenine
transcription process of 'copying' one side of the DNA molecule into RNA so that it can pass through the nuclear pores
transfer RNA type of nucleic acid that is responsible for carrying amino acids to the ribosome for translation
translation process of reading mRNA's message to put amino acids together into protein - carried out by the ribosomes
tRNA anticodons series/sequence of three nitrogen base 'letters' found in transfer RNA
uracil one of the nitrogen bases - substitutes for thymine in RNA and always 'matches' with adenine
vaccine substance made of weakened or killed microorganisms and injected into the body to produce immunity
Watson & Crick first developed a 3-D model of the DNA molecule using information from other researchers
Wilkins & Franklin identified the shape of the DNA molecule as a 'double helix' using X-ray crystallography photographs
double helix the shape of the DNA molecule; similar to a spiral staircase or twisted ladder
exons sections of the mRNA strand that exits the nucleus to be read by ribosomes
gene section of a DNA molecule that codes for a specific protein or trait
gene expression the entire process of using DNA and RNA to make proteins
Griffith & Avery worked with viruses and bacteria to prove that DNA is genetic material
helicase enzyme that unwinds DNA for replication (during Interphase)
Hershey & Chase identified transforming factor as DNA, suggesting it was a genetic change
hydrogen bonds how nitrogen bases are held together at the center of the DNA helix
introns sections of copied mRNA that stay in the nucleus and are recycled
messenger RNA working copy of DNA's instructions that is used at the ribosome
nucleic acid can either be DNA or RNA, depending on its composition
promoter portion of the DNA molecule that signals where to start transcription
ribose one of the differences between nucleic acids - this sugar is found in RNA
ribosomal RNA plays a structural role in the organelles responsible for protein synthesis
RNA polymerase enzyme that initiates transcription and adds RNA nucleotides
terminator sequence of DNA nucleotides that indicates the end of a gene
transcription information in the DNA sequence is 'copied' to mRNA
transfer RNA interprets the mRNA sequences by carrying in the correct amino acids
translation process of reading mRNA sequences to put amino acids together into protein
triplets / codes series of three nitrogen bases (letters) on the 'sense' strand of DNA
uracil another pyrimidine that substitutes for thymine in RNA molecules
Watson & Crick used others' research on base-pairing and shape to develop 3-D model of DNA
Wilkins & Franklin developed pictures of DNA's shape based on X-ray diffraction images
Created by: nstevens