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Ch.15 Pathophysiology

Myeloid lineage phagocytes Derived from myeloid stem cells Monocytes Granulocytes Dendritic cells
Dendritic cells Found in epithelial tissues
Granulocytes Neutrophils (innate immunity), eosinophils & basophils (allergic reactions & anti-parasites)
Monocytes Found in most tissues, mature into macophages, central to adaptive immunity
eosinophils & basophils allergic reactions & anti-parasite
Lymphoid lineage lymphocytes & natural killer cells Derived from lymphoid stem cells B cells T Cells NK Cells
B cells recognize circulating antigens → produce antibodies
T cells recognize antigen bound to MHCs on antigen presenting cells (APCs) T helper cells Cytotoxic T cells
T helper cells CD4
Cytotoxic T cells CD8
Natural killer (NK) cells Innate immune cells Recognize tumor & virus-infected cells
Central lymphoid tissues Bone marrow & thymus Tissues where immune cells produced & mature
T cells produced in ______ marrow → migrate to thymus → proliferate & mature
Thymic selection only T cells that recognized foreign (not self) antigens survive Thymus regresses after puberty
B cells produced in ______ marrow and mature there – also undergo selection
Peripheral lymphoid tissues Lymph nodes
Lymph nodes located where lymph vessels converge Abundant in axiallae, groin, abdomen flows through nodes bringing antigens
Antigen presenting cells exposed to antigens _____ → activate T cells
T cells activated in the ____ paracortex → proliferate → migrate to cortex
B cells in follicles of _____ cortex activated → move to medulla
B cells mature in medulla → release Antibodies
Spleen in abdominal cavity Filters antigens – Acts as huge lymph node
Other secondary lymphoid tissues Clusters of lymphoid tissue MALT – mucosa associated lymph tissue Membranes of GI, respiratory, GU tracts Peyers patches - intestines
General purpose cytokines Chemicals produced by immune cells Bind to receptors on nearby cells Contribute to a variety of parts of the immune response
Chemokines Similar to cytokines Stimulate migration & activation of immune cells Implicated in arthrosclerosis, Crohn disease, asthma, etc
Colony stimulating factors Stimulate blood cell production in marrow
Epithelial barriers Innate Immunity Skin Mucous membranes
Skin excellent barrier & also has antibacterials (Lysozyme)
Mucous membranes Mucus traps microbes → cilia remove them GI, GU, Respiratory
Lung Collectin proteins (surfactants) target pathogens for phagocytosis
Stomach Defensin proteins kill bacteria by disrupting membrane
Cells of innate immunity Phagocytes engulf & destroy bacteria Neutrophils Macrophages Dendritic cells NK cells
Macrophages later-responding phagocytes
Dendritic cells antigen presenting cells Link innate & adaptive immune responses
NK cells Lymphocytes Recognize virus-infected & cancer cells → kill them Have activation receptor – recognizes abnormal surface antigens Have inhibitory receptor - recognizes self antigens If both engage → NK cell takes not action Cytokines induce apoptosis
Neutrophils early-responding phagocytes
Created by: daszlosek