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BIO 270 Practice 2

QuestionAnswer
Polarized cells are: more negative inside the cell as compared to the outside of the cell
Which of the following receptor types requires bright light for generation of nerve impulses? Cones
Hair cells are classified as which type of receptor? mechanoreceptor
Which of the following described characteristics of the fiber type is likely to have the fastest rate of transmission? large diameter, myelinated
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by which form of neuron damage? polyneuropathy
The ability to identify the specific location of skin touch in two different areas is communicated through which pathway? discriminative
Release of neurotransmitter occurs at which location in the neuron? synaptic cleft
Describe the manifestations associated with peripheral neuropathy. Numbness, tingling, prickling sensations; sensitivity to touch, muscle weakness, burning pain, muscle wasting, and paralysis or organ/gland dysfunction. Depending on the cause, the manifestations may resolve with neuronal regeneration.
Otitis media is a condition of the: middle ear
Loss of night vision is most likely due to damage to which of the following? peripheral retina
Dull and burning pain sensations are transmitted by: type C fibers
Pain originating outside the nervous system is known as: nociceptive
The aqueous humor is located: in the posterior chamber, between the iris and the lens
Congenital hydrocephalus is most often caused by which one of the following conditions? narrowed cerebral aqueduct
Gray matter is composed primarily of: cell bodies
Ocular muscle imbalance resulting in “lazy eye” is known as: amblyopia
Otitis externa, or swimmers ear, is a condition of the: outer ear
Potassium outflow from the cell is characteristic of which phase of the action potential? repolarization Correct
Mastoiditis is a condition of the? middle ear
Which of the following manifestations must be present in order to diagnose depression? loss of pleasure
The sensation of taste is recognized by ligand binding to which of the following receptor types? chemoreceptor
Describe the way dermatomes allow for redundancy in neural conduction and perception. Dermatomes are innervated by a single pair of dorsal root ganglia and reflect segmental organization of the spinal cord. Overlap of dermatome processes occurs in the peripheral processes on the body surface and central processes of the spinal cord, provid
The type of injury that leads to seizure disorders in cerebral palsy is likely: ischemic
The lobe of the brain with functions of perception, memory, and recognition of auditory stimuli is the: temporal
Hearing loss limited to processes involving the middle ear is known as: conductive hearing loss
Blurred vision and loss of fine-tuning of focus may be due to impaired function of which one of the following eye structures? lens
Unmyelinated fibers with the slowest rate of signal transmission are known as: type C
Identify the classifications of pain and provide examples of each. Location - Deep Quality - Sharp Duration - Chronic Persistent - Resistant to treatment
Neurons connecting sensory and motor neurons are known as: interneurons
The error in refraction resulting from altered focus on an image in front of the retina due to lens thickness is: myopia
Brain tumors will likely lead to which type of injury? pressure
CSF is produced in the: choroid plexus
Bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and vascular smooth muscle constriction are caused by the direct actions of the: sympathetic nervous system
Which of the following structures is not involved in balance and equilibrium? cochlea
The parasympathetic nervous system is part of the: autonomic nervous system
Vision in dim light is mediated through which type of receptor? photoreceptor
Signal transduction of an impulse to the thalamus for processing is accomplished by? second-order neurons
Skin nerve impulses initiated in mechanoreceptors are transmitted along which type of fiber? type B
Loss of color vision is most likely due to damage to which of the following? central retina
Hearing is optimally restored by cochlear implants in which type of hearing loss? sensorineural hearing loss
Signal transduction is fastest in which type of somatosensory nerve fiber? type A
Which one of the following statements is incorrect regarding myocardial ischemia? The person experiencing silent ischemia will experience severe chest pain for up to 10 minutes
Which of the following would put a patient at risk of developing hypertension, if everything else in his body remained unchanged? retention of fluid in the intravascular space
You are working as a nurse aid in a nursing home. You are concerned that John may be developing left heart failure. As you provide morning cares, you observe for manifestations of left heart failure, which include: dyspnea, orthopnea, cough
Which of the following refers to cellular deprivation of oxygen? hypoxia
Your mother asks what could have possibly led to right-sided heart failure in your father. You inform her that: The severe pneumonia he had 2 months ago contributed to right heart failure
Which of the following disorders alters tissue perfusion by altering the blood volume or viscosity? disseminated intravascular coagulation
Your 4-month old cousin is diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux. She spits up frequently after feedings. At her last health check up, the practitioner mentioned that she is at risk for pneumonia. What would be the most likely cause for this? aspiration
Your patient describes a sensation of shortness of breath and the inability to get enough air. This is documented as: dyspnea
Upon auscultation of your patient's lung sounds, you notice a high-pitched wheezing sound. This is due to: airway constriction
Which of the following is not a change in the bronchi and bronchioles related to chronic bronchitis? hypertrophy of bronchial mucous glands
You notice that your patient has a barrel chest. This is most likely a result of: chronic alveolar distention
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be initiated by an external event like trauma. Once that event happens, what is the first pathological body change that would indicate the presence of DIC? clots form throughout the body, especially in small vessels
Anaphylactic shock causes severe hypoxia very quickly because: histamine release causes massive vasodilation
You look back at John's history, prior to the development of left heart failure, and notice that he had a recent hospital admission for: myocardial infarction
Which of the following manifestations are more commonly found in chronic bronchitis as compared to emphysema? cyanosis
You recognize that when her blood pressure dropped, the pressure in her carotid arteries decreased. This was detected by baroreceptors in the carotid arteries, which acted then to: increase sympathetic stimulation of the heart and blood vessels
The early signs or symptoms of myocardial infarction, particularly for men, include: persistent chest pain radiating to the left arm, pallor, and rapid, weak pulse
Your aunt has had an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and your uncle has a history of angina. Your aunt asks you how they will know if his pain is angina or if he is actually having an MI. Which statement would be correct? Rest and intake of nitroglycerin relieves chest pain with angina but not with MI
Describe the 3 things that regulate ventilation. A functioning respiratory control center in the brain; Lung receptors; Chemoreceptors
The basic pathologic process in a hemorrhagic stroke is that tissue death occurs as a result of: bleeding from an artery
Which of the following early signs could alert you to the presence of hypoxia, particularly in children? restlessness
The basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction is best described as: Total obstruction of a coronary artery causes myocardial cell death
Several steps characterize the development of atherosclerosis. Which is the correct order in which atheromas develop? lipoprotein oxidation, foam cells produced, fatty streaks accumulate, fibrous plaques develop, a thrombus forms
How would you know if you had hypoxemia or hypercapnia? measure arterial blood gases
The increased workload on John's heart (with left heart failure) has resulted in the following change to the myocardial cells: hypertrophy
Which of the following refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveolar capillary junction? diffusion
What is the route of transmission for tuberculosis? airborne droplet nuclei
Which measure of ventilation is the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs with forced inhalation and exhalation? vital capacity
During your holiday dinner, your mother informs you that your dad was diagnosed with right heart failure. Reflecting back on your last trip home, you do recall seeing your dad exhibit the following manifestations: peripheral edema, fatigue
Altered cardiac tissue perfusion can result from all of the following except: the development of collateral circulation
What is the major problem at the cellular level in cystic fibrosis? electrolyte and water transport
Identify conditions that can precede acute respiratory distress syndrome and describe 3 ways they can occur. Damage to the alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium triggers the onset of severe inflammation. Injury can result from inhalation of excessive smoke or toxic chemicals, overwhelming lung infections, aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs, lun
You are concerned about your parents' health. You decide to do teaching over Christmas break about the modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. Which of the following demonstrates an intervention that is cognizant of the modifiable risk factors? You go for a brisk walk with your parents and talk to them about continuing to exercise regularly
Prolonged hypertension results in the following permanent change in the vascular system: sclerosis of the arterial walls
A 20-year-old college student has a pelvic fracture and a severed leg from a motorcycle accident. She lost several units of blood at the accident scene. When she arrived in the ER her blood pressure was very low, pulse was high and her skin was pale. What decreased blood volume
What is the difference between primary and secondary TB? Primary infection is the initial exposure and growth of the bacilli in an individual with or without symptoms. Those individuals with symptoms are believed to have an aggressive and destructive disease, termed active infection. Those individuals without s
Your brother is not convinced that he should quit smoking. You are asked to demonstrate for him the more immediate effects of smoking on his health. Which of the following could be used to make your point? Measure his blood pressure and show him how much higher it is when he is smoking
Which of the following diagnostic findings is related to the accumulation of the products of inflammation during typical pneumonia? consolidation
You admit a 30 year old male to the emergency room and gather the following admission data: Blood pressure 50/30, pulse 100, respiratory rate 12, temperature 101°. Even though you don't know the exact cause, you do know that he is in shock because of his: low blood pressure
Your brother is a smoker. You are concerned because you learned in class that cigarette smoking increases the risk for heart disease. You encourage him to quit because smoking: injures the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels, thereby promoting thrombus development
What is the major role of oxygen? necessary for cellular metabolism
Which of the following is defined as an irreversible enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, most notably in the alveoli, resulting in destruction of the alveolar walls and obstruction of airflow? emphysema
Which of the following is most characteristic of Alzheimer disease, rather than typical changes in aging? difficulty with bill paying
The condition characterized by decreased size and number of skeletal muscle fibers is known as: sarcopenia
Identify 3 health risks associated with obesity. Obesity carries a long list of health risks including type II diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, stroke, osteoarthritis, liver disease, gallstones, poor wound healing, sleep apnea, and certain cancers.
Which of the following terms relates to a state where a mineral is unbound and must remain unbound (also called an ionic state), in order to be absorbed, such as with calcium? bioavailability
Which of the following is a potential metabolic alteration leading to osteoporosis in the elderly? reduced vitamin d activation
Deprivation of this will inhibit fat emulsification: bile salts
Why is combination therapy often used in the treatment of Parkinson disease? To reduce treatment side effects and retain effectiveness of the drug treatment.
Which vitamin deficiency is most likely if you are unable to absorb fats? vitamin A
How does iron deficiency lead to anemia? What vitamins and minerals are needed for the production of iron carrying cells? What are 3 major causes are iron deficient anemia? The vitamins and minerals related to red blood cell and hemoglobin integrity include B12, folate, and iron. Iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis, oxygen and electron transport, and DNA synthesis, and is found (1) within hemoglobin, myoglobin, and enz
Loss of which part of the gastrointestinal tract would have the greatest impact on nutrient absorption? small intestine
Immune function is altered in aging due to: reduced t lymphocyte activity
Structural changes contributing to neurologic deficits in aging include: decreased myelin
Which of the following is not characteristic of those with anorexia nervosa? dysmenorrhea
Which population of those listed is at the lowest risk for iron deficiency anemia? elderly men and women
Which of the following vascular changes results in increased cardiac afterload and hypertension in the elderly? decreased elasticity in arterial connective tissue
Which of the following is least likely to be underconsumed and lead to a state of undernutrition? carbohydrates
What is the difference between marasmus and kwashiorkor? Protein energy malnutrition is related to either (1) deprivation of all food, a condition of starvation that leads to marasmus or (2) protein deprivation in persons consuming adequate carbohydrates, a condition called kwashiorkor. In marasmus, dietary glu
Which of the following is not considered an essential nutrient? glucose
Which of the following theories of aging point to influences of accumulated cellular damage as a major determinant of aging? accumulated mutations
The most common form of Alzheimer disease is: late onset
Which of the following changes contributes to an age-associated decrease in total body water? decrease in muscle mass
An individual who is deficient in this nutrient is likely to present with severe edema: proteins
Neurofibrillatory tangles are most commonly associated with: Alzheimer disease
Which one of the following factors contributes to increased gender-based prevalence of osteoporosis in women? total bone mass
Age-related melanin deficiency leads to which one of the following manifestations? graying hair
Describe the different classifications of osteoporosis, primary type 1, primary type 2 and secondary. Osteoporosis is classified as primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis is further categorized as type 1 and type 2. Primary type 1 osteoporosis is also known as postmenopausal osteoporosis, stimulated by estrogen withdrawal in women. Primary type 2 is
Effective adaptation to a state of starvation (marasmus) is dependent upon suppression of this hormone: insulin
What causes gluten malabsorption in celiac disease? T-cell mediated hypersensitivity
Which of the following patients is most likely to be diagnosed with a malabsorption syndrome? Steve, a 40-year-old with severe inflammatory bowel disease
An example of age-related primary atrophy of skeletal tissue is: senescent bone loss
Lewy bodies are mainly comprised of which type of protein? α-synuclein
Those with clinical manifestations for iron-deficiency anemia often present with pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, fatigue, weakness, lightheadedness, breathlessness, palpitations, headache, tachycardia, and syncope. What is the cause of these mani hypoxia
Renal function impairment in aging is related to: reduced nephron number
What substances must be secreted in order to neutralize stomach acid in the small intestine? bicarbonate
Which nutrient is not in the simplest form needed for absorption? fiber
Created by: adale3171