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Prepare yourself for the Biochemistry section of the PA Keystone exam

What percent of your body is water? 70-75%
What are the three states of matter that water can be found? solid, liquid and gas
Why is water a great solvent? due to its polarity
What type of molecules can desolve in water? polar molecules and ions
What is meant by saying "water is polar"? having a positive and negative end to each water molecule.
What is cohesion? when water molecules tend to attract to each other and pull together
What causes surface tension? cohesion of the polar water molecule
Why is a water spider able to "walk" on water? The force of surface tension allows small organisms which are denser than water to be held on the surface of the water
What permits water to cling to other materials? water's polarity
What type of bond permits capillary action? hydrogen bonding
What three primary forces of water permit capillary action to occur in nature? cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension
What is adhesion? When water clings to other types of materials.
The property of absorbing significant energy before showing temperature is known as? specific heat
What temperature does water boil at? 212F or 100C
What temperature does water freeze? 32F or 0C
What substance inside of the human body has a high specific heat and permits humans to survive in different types of climates? water
As energy is added to water, the molecules tend to increase in vibration. What happens to the hydrogen bonds? the hydrogen bond is broken
As hydrogen bonds are broken between water molecules, what happens to the water? evaporation occurs
How does water evaporating from an organism benefit the organism? it cools the organism by pulling heat away from it
Water is considered a good hydraulic fluid. What does this mean? Water is used to expand and hold the cells rigid and erect.
for a molecule to be considered organic it must contain what atoms? Carbon and hydrogen
Carbon has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 12. How many protons, electrons and neutrons does it have? 6 protons, 6 electrons, 6 neutrons
Carbon has four electrons in its outer second shell. How many more electrons does carbon need to be stable? 4
Since carbon needs many extra electrons in its outer shell, what does this permit carbon to do? to form four bonds with other atoms to make large, complex molecules
What are 2 other scientific terms which describe the building blocks of macromolecules? monomer or subunit
What is another name for a macromolecule? polymer
The monomer of a polysaccharide is known as? monosaccharide
What is a monosaccharide? simple sugar (simple carbohydrate)
What is a polysaccharide? A complex carbohydrate typically a starch
What is the monomer of proteins? amino acids
What do many amino acids bonded together form? polypeptide chains
What do many polypeptide chains form? protein
What is the monomer of nucleic acids? nucleotides
What are the two types of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA
Carbohydrates are organic macromolecules made of a distinctive carbon, hydrogen and oxygen ratio. What is the ratio? 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen
What is the function of carbohydrates? energy source for organisms
What type of foods are carbohydrates found? grain, fruit and vegetables
Another common name for carbohydrates is? sugars
Cellulose is complex carbohydrate. What is the function of cellulose? provides structural support for plants
What are two examples of two common monosaccharides? glucose and fructose
What is an example of a common disaccharide? Sucrose
What is an example of a polysaccharides? Starch
Non-polar, organic molecules that aren't soluble in water are called? Lipids
What tends to be the monomer of lipids? Fatty acids
What are three types of common lipids? Phospholipids, Sterols, Glycerol
What type of lipids make up the lipid bi-layer of cell membranes? phospholipids
What type of lipids tend to perform as hormones or signaling molecules? sterols
What type of lipids store large amounts of energy? Glycerol
What macromolecule is necessary to facilitate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins? dietary fats
What are the four fat-soluble vitamins? A, D, E, K
What type of dietary fat helps with infant development, reduces cancer and cardiovascular disease? Omega-3
What type of dietary fat increases the bodies level of bad cholesterol and tends to clog arteries? Saturated fats
What type of dietary fat increases the amount of good cholesterol and takes bad cholesterol to the liver to be broken down? Unsaturated fat
What type of dietary fat is produced during the production of processed food and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease? Trans fat
What macromolecule is the building block for most structures in the human body? proteins
How many different types of amino acids are there? 20
What are the five major functions of proteins? antibodies, enzymes, hormones, structural proteins, transport proteins
What type of protein travels through the blood stream and are used by the immune system to identify and defend against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign intruders? Antibodies
What type of protein speeds up chemical reactions by reducing the activation energy? Enzyme
What type of proteins act as a messenger protein that helps to coordinate certain body activities? hormones
What type of proteins provide support and include proteins that make bone, tendon and muscle? Structural proteins
What type of proteins move molecules from one place to another in a body? Transport proteins
What is the function of nucleic acids? protein production and hereditary information storage
What does DNA stand for? deoxyribonucleic acids
What does RNA stand for? ribonucleic acids
What is the primary function of DNA? Store hereditary information
What are three characteristics of DNA? double stranded, deoxyribose sugar, and has the nitrogen base thymine
What is the primary function of RNA? Protein production
What are three characteristics of RNA? single stranded, ribose sugar, and has the nitrogen base uracil
What is a biological catalyst called? Enzyme
What type of biochemical increases the speed of reaction by decreasing the activation energy? enzyme
What would happen to an organism that is unable to produce enzymes? chemical reactions within their bodies would not happen fast and the organism would die
Enzymes are said to have an allosteric nature. What does this mean? This means that the enzyme will change shape whenever it binds to its specific substrate.
What is the molecule that a enzyme binds to called? substrate
After a chemical reaction occurs and the substrate is broken down, what happens to the enzyme? the enzyme molecule is unchanged and can be reused over and over
What type of energy is needed for a chemical reaction to occur? activation energy
Enzymes are substrate specific. what does this mean? This means that the enzyme can only work on that one substrate. For example: lactase only works on the sugar lactose
Due to the allosteric nature of enzymes, what part of the substrate does the enzyme bind? active site
Due to the allosteric nature of enzymes, the active sites of the enzyme and substrate work just like what? lock and key
What three factors affect the way enzymes function? pH, temperature, concentration of substrate
How does pH affect enzymes? When the pH changes, that active site progressively distorts and affects the enzyme's effect. (Just like a lock and key...if the enzyme doesn't fit properly into the active site..the enzyme doesn't function properly)
What happens to chemical reactions as the temperature increases? the speed of the chemical reaction increases
At what temperature do most enzymes become ineffective? Boiling temperatures
By increasing the amount of substrate added to the enzyme, what happens to the rate of chemical reaction? speeds up
What does the pH scale measure? The amount of hydrogen ions in a solution
What is a substance that has a pH between 1-7 called? Acid
What is a substance that has a pH of 7 called? neutral
What is a substance that has a pH between 7-14 called? base
What is another name for a substance that is a base? alkaline
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate
What is ATP used for by organisms? short term energy storage
What are the three parts of an ATP nucleotide? Adenine (nitrogen base) Ribose (5-carbon sugar) Phosphate groups
What is AMP? Adenosine monophosphate - 1 phosphate group- acts like weak battery
What is ADP? Adenosine diphosphate - 2 phosphate groups - acts like a dollar store battery
How many phosphate groups does ATP have? three
If ADP is analogous to a dollar store battery, what is ATP analogous to? a duracell lithium battery (very powerful)
What macromolecule is the fuel for cells? ATP
After the energy is used in the ATP molecule, what does the molecule revert into? ADP or AMP plus phosphate groups
ATP transport chemical energy in cells for what process? metabolism
What three biological processes produce ATP? photophosphorylation cellular respiration fermentation
When enzymes function, what type of energy do they use? ATP
What processes use ATP? metabolism motility cell division
Created by: carp115