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What percent of the Earth is water? 71%
What percent of the Earth's water is salt? 97%
What percent of the Earth's water is fresh? 3%
Water that is not salty and has no or little taste, color, or smell? Fresh Water
Water that contains dissolved salts and other minerals Salt Water
How much fresh water is available to humans? Less than 1%
Continuous movement of water through the environment of Earth Water Cycle
Process in which water changes from liquid to water vapor Evaportaion
Process in which water vapor in the atmosphere become liquid; forms clouds Condenstaion
Water that falls from clouds Precipitation
The slow passage of liquid from the surface into the ground caused by gravity Percolation or Infiltration
Precipitation that flows over land into streams and rivers and eventually the oceans Runoff
Water moves downhill due to the force of ____________? Gravity
Ridge or continuous line of high land from which water flows in different directions Divide
Area into which all the water on one side of a divide flows. Drainage Basin
Weather cools in the fall and the upper layer of water in a pond sinks and the lower layer rises Turnover
Increase of nutrients in a lake or pond Eutrophication
Areas of land that water drains into when the ground is saturated or impermeable Watershed
The top of the region of the zone of saturation that is completely filled with water Water Table
An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that contains water Aquifer
Water held underground Groundwater
A substance that liquids can flow through Permeable
A substance that liquids cannot flow through Impermeable
Hole in the ground that reaches the zone of saturation, area below the water table Well
A well in which water flows to the surface naturally due to pressure Artesian Well
A flow of water from the ground at a place where the surface of the land dips below the water table Spring
Small streams that connect and flow into a larger river Tributary
Water that is safe for humans Potable Water
Acid/base balance of water pH
Normal pH 6.5-8.5
Oxygen dissolved in water Dissolved Oxygen
Normal Level of dissolved oxygen 4 mg/L
Cold water holds more _________ than warm water Oxygen
Natural compounds of nitrogen and oxygen Nitrates
If nitrates increase, dissolved oxygen _______ Decreases
Small amounts of nitrates are normal but if elevated they are ______ Harmful
Aquatic plants and animals used as indicators of water quality Biological Indicators
What type of organisms is often used as a biological indicator Fish
Measure of the concentration of particles suspended in water Turbidity
High turbidity reduces light and ___________ in water Visibility
High turbidity reduces light; low light reduces __________ Photosynthesis
Introduction of harmful substances into the environment Pollution
Pollution that comes from one specific site Point-source pollution
Pollution that comes from many sources Nonpoint-source pollution
What directly affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in water Temperature
As temperature increases the amount of dissolved oxygen _________ Decreases
Amount of a substance that is in another substance. Concentration
Set by a government agency called the Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards
Removal of waste from water in order to make it drinkable Sanitation
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
Water is filtered and treated with chemicals to remove harmful substances to kill organisms. Water Treatment Plant
What are the two main steps in Water Treatment Plants? 1. Chemical Disinfection 2. Removal of Dirt
Water that runs down the drain and needs to be treated before being released back into the environment Wastewater
What type of system collects wastewater from a city or town. Pipes carry wastewater from homes and businesses to a water treatment plant Sewage System
A small wastewater system used by a home or a business Septic System
A long period of abnormally low rainfall Drought
What is it when humans pump or use the water faster than it can replenish itself Overuse
The act of good management; the act of protecting and conserving water resources Stewardship
What are some examples of stewardship Conserve Water, Protect water, Don't pollute, share water, limit recreational uses
Sends sound waves from a ship down into the ocean. The sound bounces off the ocean floor and returns to the ship. Sonar (Eco-sound)
Measures direction and speed of currents and changes in ocean height Satellites
Which form of technology provides us with larger scale maps of the ocean? Satellites
Form of technology that is used to study the ocean floor; can be piloted by humans or be robotic. Vessels
Describes water that has more salt than fresh water, but not as much as salt as the sea. Brackish
A measure of the amount of salt in a sample of water Salinity
What are some factors that could change the salinity level in an estuary? Evaporation, Storms, Flooding
Would the salinity level in an estuary increase or decrease right after a hurricane Increase
What are two types of dissolved gases found in water? Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Most of the oxygen in the ocean is found where? At the top (plankton)
Organisms that swim actively in the ocean Nekton
Organism that floats or drifts freely near the ocean surface - microscopic Plankton
Organisms that live on or in the ocean floor Benthos
Know a few examples of organisms in each group (Nekton and Benthos)
A diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another Food chain
A diagram that shows the feeding relationship and interconnections between several organisms in an ecosystem Food Web
Two main food webs on Earth Aquatic and Terrestrial
What does Aquatic mean? Water
What are two factors that affect ocean life? Water depth and the amount of sunlight
Floating rafts of algae Sargassum
Where the ocean meets the land Intertidal Zone
Area away from shore where water becomes deeper and the ocean floor starts to slope downward Neritic Zone
Were the seafloor drops sharply Oceanic Zone
Ocean floor Benthic Zone
What zone is the water warm because it receives a lot of sunlight? Neritic Zone
What zone can you find Coral Reefs Neritic Zone
What zone is very cold and receives no light Benthic Zone
What type of organisms gets their energy from the chemicals released by hydrothermal vents Bacteria
What ecosystem is known as the nursery of the sea Estuary
Area where fresh water spills into the ocean and is rich in nutrients Estuary
Ecosystem found on the coast of tropical areas and can absorb large amounts of storm surges Mangrove Swamps
Ecosystem found in the middle of the Atlantic ocean and has rafts of algae Sargasso Sea
Ecosystem found at in the Arctic Ocean and the ocean around the Antarctica Polar Ice
Rising of cold nutrient-rich water to the surface due to wind Upwelling
Warm water dumped into a river from a nuclear power plant Thermal(heat) Pollution
Fertilizers cause an increase in ____________. Nitrates
What are some effects of increased nitrates? Decrease in oxygen levels and the growth of algae.
Created by: kendra.parker