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# NU 624

### Final Exam - Viscosity, Flow, Gas Laws

What are the 2 different types of gas laws? Ideal and general
What do ideal gas laws describe? Interrelationship between temperature, pressure, and volume
What are the three different Ideal Gas Laws? Boyle’s, Charles’, Gay-Lussac’s
What does Boyle’s Law state? At a constant temperature, gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional
How is Boyle’s Law written? P1V1=P2V2
What does Charles’ Law state? At a constant pressure, gas volume and temperature are directly proportional
How is Charles’ Law written? V1/T1 = V2/T2
What does Gay Lussac’s Law state? At a constant volume, gas pressure and temperature are directly proportional
What is the equation for Gay Lussac’s Law? P1/T1 = P2/T2
What does Henry’s Law state? The amount of gas dissolved in liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid
What is the partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli at room air? 100 torr
If the partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli is 100 torr, what is the partial pressure of O2 in the pulmonary capillary? 40 torr
What is the partial pressure of CO2 in the pulmonary capillaries? 45 torr
What is the partial pressure of CO2 in the alveoli? Near zero
With Henry’s Law, the temperature and amount of dissolved gas in liquid are (directly/indirectly) related. Indirectly
What implication does Henry’s Law have on anesthesia and body temperature? Hypothermic patients remain anesthetized longer, febrile patients require more anesthesia
What does Dalton’s Law state? Total pressure of a mixture of gases in a closed container at a given temperature is equal to the sum of the pressures of each individual gas
What are two ways O2 is carried in blood? Dissolved in plasma (partial pressure); attached to HgB (SpO2)
How many molecules of O2 can one HgB carry? 4
How much O2 does each gram of hemoglobin carry? 1.34 ml O2
How much O2 does each dL of plasma contain? 0.003mL per mmHg
At an alveolar partial pressure of 100mmHg, how much O2 does each dL of plasma contain? 0.3ml O2 (each plasma dL contains 0.003ml O2 per mmHg)
What does Avogadro’s Law state? Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, regardless of chemical and physical properties
What is Avogadro’s number? 6.023 x 10 to the 23rd power
Avogadro’s number represents the number of gas molecules (any gas) in a volume of _____ liters. 22.4
What law permits the calculation of the amount of pure substance? Avogadro’s number
What allows for the determination of the molecular weight between gases? Avogadro’s Law
The molecular weights of gases is obtained by comparing the weights of _________. Equal volumes of gases
The resistance a fluid creates to flow can be described by the property of ________. Viscosity
Viscosity is related to ___________ of fluid as it flows through a tube. Frictional forces
When viscosity (increases/decreases), flow decreases. increases
When viscosity (increases/decreases), flow increases. Decreases
Which law governs laminar flow? Poiseuille’s Law
What is laminar flow? Flow in which all molecules in a tube travel in a parallel path
What does Poiseuille’s Law state about the location of a molecule in a tube and speed? Molecules in the center of a tube move at a greater velocity than those closest to the wall
Why do molecules in the center of a tube move at a greater velocity than those closest to the wall? They have the least amount of adhesive force, or friction, against the walls of the tube
Flow is directly proportional to what two properties? The pressure gradient and radius (to the 4th power) of a tube
Flow is inversely proportional to what two properties? Viscosity of a fluid and length of a tube
What variable has the most dramatic effect on flow through a tube? Tube radius
What is the equation for Flow? [(Pi)(Pressure gradient)(radius to the 4th power)]/[(8)(viscosity)(length of tubing)]
How can the anesthetist create a large pressure gradient to improve flow? Raise the height of the IVF bag
Doubling the radius of a tube results in a ________ fold increase in flow. 16
Identify three situations where turbulent flow can occur. Molecules encounter walls of a tube in a rough pattern; high velocity; medium to large airways
What are 5 clinical implications where Poiseullie’s Law has influence? 1)airways 2)needle gauge 3)pressure bags 4)ETT 5)blood vessels
Turbulent flow is governed by _______ Number. Reynold's
At what Reynold’s number does flow change from laminar to turbulent? >2000
What are the 5 conditions that favor turbulent flow? 1)high velocity 2)rough tubing 3)kinks/bends in tubing 4)increased solution density 5)large tube radius
What are three variables that are directly proportional to Reynold’s number? Solution density, linear velocity of flow, tube diameter
Flow is (inversely/directly) related to viscosity. Inversely
What is the equation for Reynold’s formula? Reynolds# = [(linear *v*elocity of the tube)(density of fluid *p*)(tube *d*iameter)]/viscosity
What do Reynold’s values above 2000 indicate? Turbulent flow
What do Reynold’s values below 2000 indicate? Laminar flow
Who is the Venturi Effect named after? Giovanni Battista Venturi
What does the Venturi Effect state about fluid pressure? Fluid that flows through a constricted section of piping or tubing will experience a drop in pressure
How are velocity and pressure affected when fluid passes through constricted tubing? Velocity increases; pressure decreases
In what physiologic scenario is the Venturi Effect apparent and describe the relationship? Aortic regurgitation – After initial stroke volume is released, Venturi Effect draws walls together, transiently obstructing flow and causing a pulsus bisferiens
When is a pulsus bisferiens observed? After the initial stroke volume is released and the walls of the heart are drawn together
What does bisferious mean? Striking twice
What does a pulsus bisferiens create? A double peak per cardiac cycle
Where is a pulsus bisferiens best palpated? Radial artery
What are the key characteristics of a pulsus bisferiens and in what conditions is it seen? Characterized by two strong systolic peaks with a midsystolic dip in-between; seen in aortic regurgitation with stenosis
When are Venturi masks useful? When the provider wants to provide high flows of O2 while controlling the O2 concentration (25-40%) in a spontaneously breathing patient
T/F: The Venturi mask requires an airtight seal to function. F – only requires adequate flow of air/O2 mixture
What does the Venturi mask allow control of? FiO2
O2 at a concentration of _______ percent flows through the constricted tubing of a Venturi mask. 100%
How are nebulizers used with the Venturi effect? 100% O2 flows past a constriction containing medication, the O2 hits a baffle or ball, the baffle/ball breaks down the medication into fine droplets that are inhaled by the patient
What does Bernoulli’s principle state? For non-viscous fluids, an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure
Bernoulli’s principle is closely related to the ___________. Venturi effect
State why Bernoulli’s principle is related to the Venturi mask. As an airway narrows, the flow velocity increases while pressure decreases
What are two examples of application of Bernoulli’s principle? Venturi mask and nebulizers
What two principles are closely intertwined in relation to flow and velocity? Venturi effect and Bernoulli’s principle
Created by: philip.truong