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Bmark Review

review vocab for spring benchmark

adhesion the tendency of water to stick to other substances
atomic mass the average mass number of all isotopes of an atom. Round this number to find the mass number of the atom.
buoyancy the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object that is immersed in the fluid
capilary action the process that moves water through a narrow porous space
cohesion the attractive force between water molecules
compound a pure substance that is created by 2 or more elements chemically reacting and joining together.
electron subatomic particle with a negative charge and located outside the nucleus.
element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
Law of Conservation of Mass A law that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction. The mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the reactants.
Atomic mass the average mass number of all isotopes of an atom. Round this number to find the mass number of the atom.
polarity uneven distribution of charges across a molecule
surface tension the force that acts on the particles at the surface of a material
River Basin the region of land drained by a river and its tributaries
Watershed the land area that supplies water to a river system
Specific heat the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius
Ductility the ability to be stretched into a thin wire
Malleability the ability to be hammered into a sheet
Solution when one substance mixes with another and dissolves. Example: Salt + Water = Salt Water
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
Period Elements that occur in a horizontal row on the periodic table
Group Elements that occur in a vertical column on the periodic table; also called a family.
Metal An element below and to the left of the stair-step line of metalloids; about 80% of the known elements are metals.
Nonmetal An element above and to the right of the stair-step line of metalloids.
Metalloid An element with properties of both metals and nonmetals located along the stair-step line on the right side of the periodic table.
Compound a pure substance that is created by 2 or more elements chemically reacting and joining together.
Mixture The physical combination of 2 or more substances; can be separated by physical means.
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that is evenly mixed; also called a solution.
Heterogeneous mixture A mixture that is unevenly mixed.
Precipitate an insoluble substance that is produced as result of a chemical reaction.
Bioindicator organisms or components of organisms that are used to assess the health of a water system
Macro-invertebrate small, spineless creatures that are visible with the unaided eye; they include organisms such as crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and insects
pH scale rating of how acidic or basic a substance is the scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral values less than 7 being acidic and values greater than 7 being basic
Nitrate nitrogen compounds used for growth by plants and algae; a compound that can be used by photosynthetic life forms to obtain the nitrogen needed for survival
Turbidity a measure of the clarity of the water (how clear is it?)
Non-point source pollution pollution that comes from many places or sources that is not easily identified; pollution that results from water flow picking up trash, toxic chemicals, and other types of waste
Point Source pollution pollution that can be traced to a specific source such as oil that spills from a pipeline
Scuba Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus - device that allows divers to breathe underwater for long periods of time.
SONAR SOund NAvigation Ranging - used to measure ocean depth by sending sound to bounce off the ocean floor.
Abiotic Factor the non-living factors of the environment that an organism lives in.
Benthos organisms that live on or in the ocean floor.
Biotic Factor the living organisms of the environment.
Consumer - feed on other organisms (plant or animal) because they cannot make their own food.
Estuary body of water where a river meets the ocean
Habitat The immediate space where an animal or plant lives and has food, water and protection.
Intertidal Zone the area that lies between the low-tide and the high-tide line.
Nekton free-swimming organisms whose movements are independent of the tides, currents, and waves.
Upwelling the upward movement to the ocean surface of deeper, cold and usually nutrient-rich waters, especially along some shores, due to the offshore movement of surface waters
Darwin was a naturalist who proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection.
Fossil evidence of past life preserved in rock.
Index fossil a fossil found in a narrow time range but widely distributed around the earth; used to date rock layers
Natural selection survival of the fittest organisms that are the best adapted to their environment and the ones that will live long enough to reproduce and pass on their favorable adaptations
Trace fossil a fossilized mark that is formed in soft sediment by the movement or actions of an animal.
Trilobite a marine organism that is an example of an index fossil
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This number identifies the atom.
Created by: geneshutt