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Pharm Part II

Pharmacology lecture part II

What is a Medication? a chemical or substance that effects part of the body which is used in the diagnosis, treatment, relief, cure, or prevention of disease or prevention of pregnancy.)
What is the nurses role in Medication administration? Nurses are the last to give a medication to a pt. We evaluate the effectiveness and response to drug. We educate patients about medications. We evaluate pt ability to self-medicate themselves.
Define the oral route of adminstration by mouth (generally the pt will swallow a medication.) ( we must know if a drug can be cut in half, do not crush enteric coated drugs.
How can oral meds be taken? swallowed,  Sublingual (under the tongue- pt does not take with water, pt does not chew, smoke, drink ~ 30 minutes after giving.)  Buccal ( tablet goes between the cheek and the gums. Alternate cheeks. )
Define Parenteral adminstration Into the body, such as an injection.
What is a intradermal injection? (PPD Skin test. Small volume- 0.10ml. narrow angle, small needle. Small bubble or Wheal will form.)
What is a subcutaneous injection? (subQ) ( Into the skin, epidermis, fat of the skin. Angle 45 possible 90 depending on needle size and size of a pt. needle is max 5/8 of an inch. Do not aspirate. In the fat we usually do not have blood. Do not aspirate with heparin.)
Describe an intramuscular injection (IM) given at a right angle, 90 degree, perpendicular to the skin. Deltoid- 1 inch needle only. 21-23 gauge needle.
What is an intravenous injection? Given directly into a vein, or catheter in a vein.
Describe the Z-Track method of giving an IM injection. Technique Pull skin to the left or right, hold, give injection, release skin. Prevents medication from returning though puncture
What is topical administration? Transdermal patch, an ointment, or a cream
What is ophthalmis administration? Given into the eye, pull the lower eyelid down and apply the medication
Describe medication in the ears. Pull the ear up and back, apply medication.
What is inhalation medication Inhalers, pts should wait inbetween puffs.
What are the 7 rights of medication administration? DR TRAMP DOcumentation Route, Time, Reason, Amount, Medication, Patient.
Who has prescriptive authority? NOT RN, Physician Assistant, Physician, Nurse Practitioner.
What bust a prescriber document when prescribing a medication? The diagnosis, condition, the need for the medication.
Abbreviations we do not use  No trailing zeros. (Use zeros before periods.( 0.05)  Certain abbreviations confusing and dangerous when handwritten
What is a standing or routine order? The order is routine and given as long as the patient doesn't refuse, or the dr cancels the order. EX: 4 times a day, 2 times a day, 6 times a day, Given before or after meals.
What is a single or one time order? Given one time. EX: Pneumonia vaccine
What is a NOW order? Important as soon as you can give the medication. Little lee-way it may not be stocked on the floor but get it and give it right away
What is a PRN order? As needed, frequency is listed, but not a time because the pt may not needed it all of the time. EX Q4h by mouth PRN)
What is a STAT order? Given it right away
What is a Pharmacist role in medication administration? Preparation and distribution of prescribed meds
What is an automatic dispensing system? All of the medications that a pt will have in 24 hours goes into a drawer for the pt.
What is an OMNICELL You enter a code and finger print to receive medication that is under control.
What is the nurses roll in medication? They should have a knowledge of medications, we should know how drugs work and know the interactions and side effects of medications. We should know how to accurately administer medication and know how to calculate dosages.
Where can a medication error be made? Anywhere in DR. TRAMP. Could give the wrong documentation, reason, time, route, amount, medication, or wrong pt.
What are the consequences of making a medication error? People do not lose their job every time they make an error, yet we don’t want nurses to make them often.
What action is taken when we realize a medication error has been made? The Dr is notified, make a note in the chart. (ex pt received X amount of drug. List side effects, Physician notified. ) Nurse receives medication retraining Patient- Needs to know. Don’t always get told.
What responsibility and accountability are we held to as students?  As a student, can’t delegate, but as a RN you can delegate.  Giving reasons for actions- accountability.
Created by: dgreen158