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Forensics Chapter 1

Introduction

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of FORENSIC SCIENCE? Forensic Science is the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
What service does the PHYSICAL SCIENCE UNIT provide for a full-service crime lab? A basic service that applies the principles and techniques of chemistry, physics and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence.
What service does the BIOLOGY UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? A basic service that identifies dried bloodstains and body fluids, compares hairs and fibers, identifIes and compares botanical materials such as wood and plants, and performs DNA analysis.
What service does the FIREARMS UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? A basic service that examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types.
What service does the DOCUMENT EXAMINATION UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? A basic service that analyzes handwriting, paper and printers of documents.
What service does the PHOTOGRAPHY UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? A basic service that examines and records physical evidence at the crime scene and at suspects' locations.
What service does the TOXICOLOGY UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? An optional service that examines body fluids and organs in order to determine the presence and identification of drugs and poisons.
What service does the LATENT FINGERPRINT UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? An optional service that processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints i.e. those found on surfaces.
What service does the POLYGRAPH UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? An optional service that uses lie detectors, an essential tool of the crime investigator rather than the forensic scientist.
What service does the VOICEPRINT ANALYSIS UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? An optional service that are involved in cases of telephone threats or tape-recorded messages. Investigators may be able to connect a voice to a particular suspect.
What service does the EVIDENCE-COLLECTION UNIT provide a full-service crime lab? An optional service that incorporates evidence collection into a total forensic science service.
What are the 3 main functions of the forensic scientist? 1. Analysis of Physical Evidence 2. Expert Witness/Testimony 3. Specially trained evidence collection technicians.
What did the "Frye verses U .S." court case establish? This court case established that a scientific technique must be "generally accepted" by the scientific community.
What is an expert witness? This type of witness possesses a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will aid the court in determining the truth.
What is the role of a specially trained evidence collection technician? Training in proper : Recognition Collection Preservation of Evidence
What are the 5 categories that death can be classified into? natural, homocide, suicide, accidental, undetermined
What service does the FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST provide? The cause of death is determined by performing an autopsy. The pathologist is sometimes known as the medical examiner or the coroner.
What is FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY? A special service that involves the identification and examination of skeletal remains, in order to determine if the remains are human or another type of animal. If the bones are human, ethnicity, approx. age, and manner of death can be determined.
What is FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY? is the study of insects and their developmental stages, which can help to determine the time of death by knowing when those stages normally appear in the insect's life cycle.
What is FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY? The study of human behavior and legal proceedings in both civil and criminal cases in which competency often needs to be determined. In criminal trials, the evaluation of behavior disorders is often required in order to establish the psychological profile
What is FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY? the area in which a scientist can match bite marks to a suspect's teeth, or match a victim to his dental x-rays, resulting in an identification of an unknown individual.
Created by: dlong