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Pharm part 1

Pharmacology lecture part I

Why do nurses study drugs? Because nurses administer medications.
What is a drug? Any chemical that can affect living processes.
What is pharmacology? the study of drugs and their reactions with living systems.
What is clinical pharmacology? The study of drugs in humans.
What are pharmacotherapeutics? The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or prevent pregnancy.
What is pharmacognosy? the branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs in their crude or natural state and with medicinal herbs or other plants.
What is toxicology? The science of dealing with the effects, antidotes, detection, or poisons.
Accordind to Lehne, does a safe drug exist? No drug has met the criteria for being a safe drug.
What are the properties of an ideal drug? Effectiveness, safety (no such thing, any drug can cause an overdose), selectivity.
How would one test effectiveness? To find out if a drug is effective you test it. EX: To test a drug that regulates heart rate, take an apical pulse
What is selectivity? EX: If a pt uses nitroglycerin it's supposed to dilate the vessels of the heart. But is dialates vessels everywhere. Selectivity is where the drug acts and takes effect.
What is the the therapeutic objective of drug therapy? Provide the maximun benefit to the pt with the minimum harm.
What are the factors that determine intensity of drug responses? Administration (timing and route of the medication) pharmacokinetics( how long it takes for the drug to get to the site of action) pharmacodynamics(Tolerance, vs placebo effect)
Federal Pure food and drug act of 1906 Was not a stong act, so attempt to control the consumer, affected cosmetic.
Food, drug, and cosmetic act of 1938 Antibiotic caused 100 deaths in europe, first really strong act
1962 Harris-Kefauver Amendment to the food, drug, and cosmetic act. Thalidomide epidemic/tragedy. Infants born without fully developed limbs. No longer given to pregnant women. Has it’s uses. Drugs have to prove their uses, and drugs had to be tested prior to being released to the public.)
1970- Controlled substances act Developed the drug schedule, Schedule I- High abuse, Schedule II- opioids, Schedule I-V, 1-5
2007 FDA amendments act rigorous oversight of drug safety. Drugs can be pulled off the market if found unsafe. Darvocet, byox
What are the Three types of drug names? Chemical name, generic name, trade name.
What is a Chemical name? Decription of drug using nomenclature of chemistry 1. Example: (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) = acetaminophen
What is the generic name? (not capitalized, Only one per drug and assigned by US Adopted Name Council.)
What is a trade name? (proprietary or brand name. Are capitalized.)
What is tall man lettering? - Capital letters in the middle of a word. Not appropriate for APA format, but use for hospital is okay.
According to Lehne define pharmacokinetics Passage of drugs across membranes.
What are factors that affect the absorption of a drug? Rate of dissolution, surface area, bloof flow, lipid solubility, pH, Barriers
What is rate of dissolution? more rapid a drug dissolves, the faster it absorbed into the blood stream.
How does surface area effect drug absorption? most oral drugs are absorbed in the small intestine. Very large, long surface area.
How does blood flow effect drug absorption? higher rate of absorption happens in area of high blood flow.
What is lipid solubility? greater the fat solubility of a drug the faster it is absorbed.
What are some barriers to drug absorption? IV: none if administered iv. IM and subcutateous: capillary wall to cross Oral: (GI epithelium in the GI tract and capillary wall.) How safe?- Food has a tendency to decrease absorption of a drug.
Created by: dgreen158