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Ch. 20 vocabulary


Aminoglycosides misreading of codons--incorrect amino acids are added
Ampicillin broad range of derivative of penicillin--modification allows it to penetrate outer memgrane of gram-negative bacteria and kill them
Antibiotic susceptibility test for by pure cultures to identify organisms--organism many known resistances to ABT--sensitive txs possible--ABTs placed on paper disk then petri dish--ABT difuses into surrounding agar--sensitive organisms near disk are killed or growth prohibited
Antibiotics chemical agents that fits need to kill or inhibit microbes without harming patient--antilige compounds
B-lactam four ring structure contained by penicillins--crucial to activity
Broad-spectrum antibiotics can inhibit most all organisms--
Chemotherapuetic agents associated with agents used for tx of cancer
Chloramphenicol antibacterials with peptide bond formation
Ciprofloxacin polymixin--tolerated quite will internally--used extensively
Erythromycin antibacterial--movement of peptidyl-tRNA to allow addition of more amino acids
Kirby-Bauer test determines--drugs for which given microbe is sensitive--concentration level at which drug is effective
Minium effective therapeutic dose patient-effective concentration of antibiotic
Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC--most dilute concentration that inhibits bacterial growth
Narrow spectrum ABTs--penicillin--inhibit only gram-positive bacteria
Polymyxin antibacterial--only one able to kill nongrowing cells
Quinolines ABTs that act against bacterial DNA synthesis
Rifampin ABTs that inhibit bacterial RNA synthesis
Selection after mutation occurs--penicillin in environment causes all but mutant to be killed--only mutant grows--mutants are selected out of the total population
Selective toxicity drugs that exhibit complete or 100% lethality to microbes with zero effect on patient
Selectivity penicillin-based ABTs initially known as magic bullets or miracle cures--kill microbes without killing patient
Sulfa drugs that inhibit synthesis of vitamin folic acid from para-aminobenzoic acid--high selective toxicity for bacteria as well as some fungi/parasites
Tetracyclines antibacterials that are tRNA binding
Therapeutic index divide lowest toxic dose of ABT by minimum effective therapeutic dose--tells range of dosage that can be used in the human body
Tube dilution test ABT is serially diluted (usually by twofold increments) in several tubes of bacteria--determin how little ABT is required to stop bacterial growth
Zone of inhibition area of dead/inhibited organisms and measured width is measure of ABT potency
Created by: heatherlvn