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cancer

cancer mtc 165

TermDefinition
Cancer is diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues
malignancy progressive, resistant to treatment and tending to cause death, synonymous with cancer
Most cancers occur in who? people older than 65 years old
What is the cancer that has the highest prevalence among men and women lung and colon
what cancer is highest in males? lung, colon and rectal
What cancer is highest in females? lung, breast and rectal
hypertrophy growth caused by a increase in the size of cells
hyperplasia growth caused by increasing the number of cells
dysplasia abnormal change in size, shape or organization of adult cells precanerous
neoplasia any new or continued cell growth not needed for normal development or replacement of dead and damaged tissues
How does malignant cells grow? invasion, infiltrates surrounding tissues
pleomorphism is cells very in size and shape
polymorphism is enlarged nucleus
G1 phase is RNA and protein synthesis occur
S phase is DNA synthesis occurs
G2 phase is DNA synthesis is complete, mitotic spindle forms
Mitosis cell division occurs
Seven Warning signs Change in bowel/bladder habits; a sore/wound that does not heal; unusual bleeding or discharge; thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere; indigestion or difficulty in swallowing; obvious change in wart or male; nagging cough/hoarseness
PSA (prostatic specific antigen) used to detect prostate cancer
CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen) used to T2detect colon & breast cancer
AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) detect stomach, colon & lung, and liver cancer
TNM classification system is tumor, node and metastasis
Tx is primary tumor cannot be assessed
T0 is no evidence of primary tumor
Tis carcinoma in situ -in its place
T1, T2, T3, T4 progressive increase in tumor size & involvement
Nx is regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed clinically
N0 Lymph nodes normal
N1, N2, N3 abnormal lymph nodes, increasing involvement
Mx presence cannont be not assessed
M0 is no distant metastasis
M1 distant metastasis present
G1 is Tumor cells are well differentiated & closely resemble the normal cells from which they arose
G2 Tumor cells are moderately differentiated, normal plus malignant cells
G3 is Tumor cells poorly differentiated, have few normal characteristics
G4 is Tumor cells poorly differentiated, have few normal characteristics
Diagnostic of cancer Biopsy: tissue sample for analysis
Curative of cancer Debulking” Local Excision sm mass Radical Excision primary tumor
prophylactic of cancer Remove nonvital tissues or organs most likely to develop cancer
palliative of cancer Relieve complications of cancer
What are the external radiation delivery types teletherapy
Brachytherapy Implant delivers high dose of radiation to a localized area. It is a continues type. They are radioactive for a time.
intracavitary Radioisotopes remain in place for a prescribed period of time and then removed
Benign cells Well differentiated cells, resemble parent cells Grow by expansion with invading surrounding tissues Rate of growth is progressive and slow
Malignant Cells Cells are undifferentiated, anaplasia, atypical structure Grows by invasion, infiltrates surrounding tissues Rate of growth is variable, usually rapid Gains access to the blood and lymph channels to metastasize to other areas of the body
angiogenesis process by which a new blood supply is formed
Smoking is related to what cancers? lung, head and neck, esophagus, pancreas, cervix and bladder
Created by: 597389573