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Respiratory theory


Breathing, inspiration and expiration, inhale and exhale Respiration
Having enough blood pressure or air pressure inside to fill the area Perfusion, tissue perf with 02, kidney need adequate blood perfusion
Little wave like hair in the lungs Cilia
Little grape sacs where O2 and CO2 exchange Alveoli
Below epiglottis, produce voice, in vocal cord Larynx
The main split of the trunk Bronchi
Little branches of bronchi Bronchioles
To put air into something Ventilation, ventilate a room…
Not breathing Apnea
Difficulty breathing Dyspnea
Turning blue Cyanosis
Low oxygen level Hypoxemia
Cyanosis in a portion of the body Acrocyanosis
Explain why clients with emphysema must have 02 in low doses? Drive to breath, emphysema , alveoli are acting more like a paper bag instead of a balloon. You have trapped air in there and it shorts out the compensatory mechanism that tell us when to breath. Usually, when CO2 goes up, it’s stimulate breathing. With e
Infection, inflammation of the lungs Pneumonia
Causes/risk factors Elderly, decrease mobility, swallowing, breathing pb, elderly,
Symptoms sudden onset of fever
What you would find on assessment Auscultate the lung, fever, dyspnea, cough, retractions, maybe weezing
Pt teaching Hidration, humidify oxygen, Rest, bronchodialators, not lay down flat, rest
Interventions O2 therapy, sitting, avoid exercise, not lay down flat, percussion, change position to move fluids
Goals of care Main is maintain adequate oxygenation, deep breathing exercise, spirometer
What is TB? Caused by Bacteria
What causes it Bacteria
Who is at risk Ppl in public environment, emergency room, coming from other countries
How is it diagnosed?PPD (skin test), chest x-ray
How is it treated? Lots of med for a long time, isolation room,
Symptoms Fever, consistent cough, coughing blood, fatigue weight loss
Rapid shift of fluid from plasma into the alveoli PULMONARY EDEMA
What is going on with heart? CHF
Hallmark symptoms
Discuss triggers
S/S (lung sounds) wheezing in alvioli
Tx interventions
Pt education Understand what put them at risk
Risk factors Smoking, elderly
Explain emphysema
Causes main is smoking
What physiological change is occurring? paper bag picture
Nursing management stay oxygenated, low O2
Prognosis Poor, chronic, can’t heal, irreversible
What can lead to chronic bronchitis? Smoking,
What can irritate it? cold weather, allergens,
What nursing interventions can help? pt are medically fragile,
Primary indicator for a respiratory problem Anxiety
Why are an emergency
Asthma attack (sometimes) an emergency If deep whezz, Pass out, need rescue inhaler, If not react, epinephrine and
Pulmonary edema? damage to the heart
Pulmonary Embolus SOB, dyspnea, hemothaxis
Hemothorax Blood in thorax
Lung cancer
Initial symptoms Not initial symptoms
Causes Smoking, allergens, pesticide, secondary cancer can metasize from somewhere else
Nursing interventions Treat the symptom, oxygenated, quit smoking
Preventions not smoking, don’t expose to chemicals
Review Epistaxis bloddy nose
Assessment and care of client on 02 looking where tube are touching the body, dry nose, hydrate, not put petroleum products around, safety to use O2
Created by: fausfez