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World Geo Ch 18-20

World Geo Benchmark 2

what covers most of africa (geography wise)? huge plateau with several basins
What does the Nile river provide? irrigation
What are rift valleys? areas where tectonic plates pulled apart and land sunk in; many lakes +freshwater source
what is an escarpment? steep slope with plateau top
what is under the Sahara desert and define it aquifers; huge stores of underground water
what does the word sahel mean and what is it? means "shore of the desert" ; band of grassland under the Sahara
what problem is the sahel facing and list 2 causes of it desertification; overgrazing, farming
What type of vegetation covers most of Africa? give an example and what it provides tropical grassland; Serengeti Plain is a habitat for wild animals
What are 2 positives and 4 negatives of the Aswan High Dam Positives: increases farmable land by 50%, prevents Nile floods Negatives: people relocated during construction, lower soil fertility, more disease, freshwater lost to evaporation
list the 4 climates of africa in order of largest to smallest tropical grassland, dry desert, rainforest, snow-capped mountains
What precious minerals does Africa have? gold, chromium, platinum, cobalt
What is the main problem that Africa has with its minerals? european colonists set up system to export minerals to Europe --> african countries can't make $$ from minerals
What African countries are the major oil producers in the world? Libya, Nigeria, Algeria
Why does the oil in Angola not benefit the Angolans? the government spends oil $ on civil war instead of infrastructure
What has been damaging the environment in Nigeria? Oil; explosions + leaks cause fires + pollution
what are the main agricultural products of africa? Coffee, sugar, cocoa beans
What is the main source of employment in africa? agriculture
What is Olduvai George? place in tanzania where homo habilis fossils found
What important features is East Africa next to? Why are they important Red Sea, Indian Ocean; made East africa a major trading center
3 main reasons Europeans colonized Africa? resources + nationalism + spread christianity
What was the Berlin conference? where European leaders divided Africa amongst themselves + set random boundaries
What country avoided colonization? How? Ethiopia, good weapons/army
What is the main East African economy? farming + wildlife park tourism
What are the 2 main ethnic groups of East Africa and what are they known for? Masai (beadwork) , Kikuyu (largest group)
what is a pandemic? huge outbreak of disease in a large area
What made the Egyptian civilization possible? Nile river
What is the major religion in Africa Islam
What is the main economy of North Africa today? Oil
What are the markets called in North Africa? Souks
What is Rai? fast-paced algerian music that is used to rebel against Islamic fundamentialists
How have womens roles changed in north africa? more rights + jobs
What is Gorée Island? off the coast of Senegal, busy center for slave trade
What were the 3 trade empires of West Africa? why was ghana Ghana, Mali, Songhai
What is a stateless society? people rely on family lineage to govern, no 1 ruler because they work together
Who are the Ashanti and what are they known for? ethnic group in Ghana that weaves meaningful geometric Kente cloth
What were the Bantu migrations? movement of Bantu people throughout Africa which increased cultural diversity + united Africa
Who was King Leopold II? Belgian king who took over Congo for trade reasons
What problems did African governments face after colonialism? random boundaries + corruption
Who was Mobutu Sese Seko? Dom. Rep. Congo leader who stabilized post-colonialsm economy but then became corrupt + hated colonists
What is Fang sculpture? skull/bone sculptures create by the Fang (Central African ethnic group)
What do Central African countries hope for education? that it will provide stability after colonialism
What were the gold trading empires of Southern Africa? Great Zimbabwe, Mutapa Empire
What was Apartheid? mid 1900s s. africa policy that separated races
who was Nelson Mandela? leader of African national Congress, who was imprisoned for fighting against apartheid, became president later
What is the problem with South africa today? blacks are still given less rights and worse jobs
What did the African governments have to do after colonists left? borrow tons of money --> weakened government
What is africa's main economy today? export of raw materials
Why are african countries called one-commodity countries? why is this risky? they only sell one agricultural/mining product; risky bc based on worldwide demand
What does AIDS stand for? Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
What is cholera? disease from water contamination
what is tuberculosis? respiratory infection
how is lack of schooling affecting Africa? barrier to economic development because workers arent skilled
How is having many ethnic groups a problem for building democracies? the colonial boundaries combine different ethnic groups who don't want to cooperate to build governments
Created by: mhaq.16



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