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What are osteoblasts? bone forming cells
what are osteocytes? mature bone cells
What are osteoclasts? cells that break down bone
What are the two broad classifications of fractures? Simple: closed (skin intact), Compound: open (direct communication between skin wound and fracture)
What are the more detailed classifications of fractures? Green stick, impact, spiral, and comminuted
What are the stages of fracture healing? Hematoma, granulation tissue, callus formation, ossification, consolidation , remodeling
What age groups are at risk for fractures? Men 15-25 and adults >65
What are the most common types of fractures due to MVA? tibial fractures
What types of fractures are the elderly most at risk for? veterbral, wrist and hip (usually due to falls)
What is the main priority for immediate fracture care? to achieve and maintain proper allignment
What are other priorities for a fracture? immbolize the injury, ice, elevation, frequent assessment
What are the nursing cares for fractures? Decrease pain, prevent infections (ATB) tetanus shot, prevent hazards of immobility, restore function
What are the benefits of having a fiberglass or plastic cast? light weight, can get wet and drys quicker
What is the purpose of traction? to maintain alignment, immobolize, reduce muscle spasms, reduce pain and increase rest
What are the complications of fractures? Infection (osteomylitis, gas gangrene, tetanus) Hemorrhage --> shock, PE, fat embolism, compartment syndrome
What types of fractures are more likely to result in a fat embolism? pelvis, femur and tibia
When is a fat embolism most likely to occur? within 48 hours of injury
What are the S/S of compartment syndrome? pain unrelieved by meds, edema unrelieved by elevation, parathesia, decreased perfusion, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis
What is contraindicated in compartment syndrome? applying ice and elevation
What should the nurse anticipate if compartment syndrome is suspected? Cut off cast, surgery (fasciotomy)
Created by: brebre273