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NFS 207- Review 2

Chapter 4, 5, 6 & 8 review for Exam 2

Disaccharides Pairs of Monosaccharides -Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
Maltose 2 glucose units
Sucrose glucose & frutose
Lactose galactose & glucose
Condensation links two monosaccharides together
hydrolisis Breaks a disaccharide in two
Polysaccharides Generally composed of glucose units: glycogen & starch
Glycogen -Storage form of energy in body -found mostly in liver & muscle
Starch -Storage form of energy in plants -2 forms: amylopectin & amylose
Small intestine -mostly carbohydrate digestion -pancreatic amylase -specific disaccharide enzymes
Specific disaccharide enzymes maltase, sucrase, lactase
Large intestine soluble fibers fermented
Carbohydrate metabolism -glucose most critical for energy use -Can store glucose as glycogen in liver & muscle -Ketone bodies made -use glucose to make fat: unlimited production & storage
Liver Storage -condensation into glycogen -hydrolysis for release of glucose when needed
muscle storage -glycogen stored, but only used by that specific muscle
Ketone bodies -made from fat fragments -occurs when not enough carbohydrates -can be used for energy by most tissues
Ketosis -disturbs acid-base balance, since acidic when production exceeds use -Carbohydrates needed for protein sparing & prevention of ketosis
Consistency of Blood Glucose -must have steady supply to blood stream -blood glucose homeostasis -glucagon & epinephrine -balancing within normal range -diabetes
Blood Glucose Levels Too Low: dizzy & weak Too High: Fatigue
Blood glucose homeostasis Insulin: glucose from blood into cells
Glucagon & epinephrine brings glucose out from glycogen storage
Balancing within normal range balancing meals at regular intervals
Diabetes Type 1, Type 2, "Pre-Diabetes"
Type 1 no insulin
Type 2 -insulin not effective -Fasting blood glucose > or = 126mg/100 ml
"Pre-Diabetes" Fasting Blood Glucose level 100-125mg/100 ml
Health Effects of Starch & Fibers -Diabetes:reduce glucose surges -GI Health: reduce damage & ample fluids improve elimination -Weight management: feeling of fullness -Cancer
Effects of Starch & Fiber on Cancer -Dietary fiber & colon cancer have inverse relationship -Source of dietary fiber:veg., fruit & whole grains & provides phytochemicals -Preventing Colon cancer: Diluting, binding, and removing carcinogens + Bacterial fermentation: reduces inflammation
Dietary fiber recommendation -FDA: DV set at 25 grams/day -USDA: DRI set at 25-35 grams/day -No UL set, since generally no adverse effects of high levels upon healthy people
Fatty Acids -often named an omega number -Omega number is the number of carbons starting at methyl end -most common 18 carbons
Omegas -Omega 3: linolenic acid -Omega 6: Linoleic acid -Omega 9: Oleic acid
Triglycerides -glycerol backbone -three fatty acids -Formed via series of condensation reactions -usually contain mixture of fatty acids
Effect of degrees of unsaturation Firmness & Stability
Firmness -Polyunsaturated fats: soft -Saturated fats: hard -Length of carbon chain: shorter is softer
Stability -oxidation and spoilage of fats -More unsaturation, more risk of spoilage -Can protect by reducing contact with light, air and heat
Mostly Saturated Fatty Acids -Animal fats & tropical oils: Coconut oil, butter, beef tallow, palm oil & lards
Monosaturated Fatty Acids -Some Veg. Oils: Olive Oil, Canola Oil, peanut oil, safflower oil
Polysaturated Fatty Acids -Many Veg. oils: Flaxseed, walnut, sunflower, corn, soybean, cotton seed
Phospholipids -solubility in fat & water -Emulsifiers in food industry: used in mayonnaise and candy bars -Lecithin: most common (see Fig. 5-9) -Food sources: eggs, soybeans -Bio role: part of cell membrane (Fig. 5-10)
Sterols -Food Source: Cholesterol in animal foods & Plant sterols like soybeans + added to food like margarine -Body compounds made from cholesterol: e.g.; vitamin D -Found in cell membranes
Lipid Digestion - Small intestine: -Cholecystokinin (CCK):Gall bladder releases bile & Bile acts as emulsifier -Pancreatic lipase -Hydrolysis:Triglycerides and phospholipids -Bile use can affect blood cholesterol levels
Lipid transport -Chylomicrons -Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) -Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) -High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Chylomicrons -largest & least dense -Diet derived lipids -Liver removes remnants from blood
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) -made in liver -lipids from diets & liver synthesis
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) -mostly brings cholesterol to cells
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) -removes cholesterol from cells -carry cholesterol to liver for recycling -anti-inflammatory properties
Role of Triglycerides -provide cells with energy: 9 kcals per gram, virtually unlimited ability to store fat energy in body -Adipose tissue: storage -Skin insulation, shock absorption & cell membrane composition
Essential Fatty Acids -Omega 6: most veg. oils -Omega 3: mostly fish, DHA, EPA, Eicosanoid(hormones) -Fatty Acids deficiencies
Recommended intake of fat 1. DRI & Dietary guidelines -Diet low in saturated and trans fat -Diet low in cholesterol -20 to 35 percent of daily energy from fat 2. Daily Values (DV) on food labels -Fat (30%); Saturated and trans fat combined (10%) and cholesterol (300 mg)
guidelines for groceries 1. Fat replacers -May be derived from fat, carbohydrate or protein, Ex: Olestra 2. Read Food Labels -Total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol -Compare products -% Daily Value vs. % kcalories from fat
Proteins -more complex than carbohydrates or fats -20 amino acids -peptides bonds link amino acids
20 amino acids -different characteristics -essential amino acids -nonessential amino acids
Protein Digestion 1.Mouth: Crushed & moistened 2.Stomach -Hydrochloric acid denatures proteins -Pepsinogen to pepsin (due to HCl) 3.Small Intestine -Hydrolysis reactions: pancreatic enzymes -Peptidase enzymes: breakdown of small chains of aa’s
Role of Proteins 1. Growth & maintenance 2.Enzymes 3.Hormones 4.Energy 5. Transporters for lipids, vitamins, ect.
Growth & maintenance -Building blocks for most body structures ex: Collagen -Replacement of dead or damaged cells
Enzymes -Break down, build up, and transform substances -Catalyst for many reactions
Hormones -messenger for molecules -transported in blood to target tissues
Energy -Starvation & insufficient carbohydrate intake may result in use of protein for energy
Protein Metabolism Excreting Urea: -Liver releases urea into blood: kidney filters urea out of blood -Protein intake & urea production: water consumption necessary
Protein Quality -Digestibility -Amino Acid Consumption -Reference protein -High Quality proteins -Complementary proteins
Digestibility -Animal proteins are high (90-99%) -Plant proteins usually lower (70-90%)
Amino Acid Consumption -essential amino acid levels are critical -generally composition compared to reference protein -Limiting amino acids: lowest level of a particular essential amino acids compared to reference protein
Reference proteins -amount of essential amino acids needed by pre-school age children
High-quality proteins -Animal proteins -Plant proteins: none except soybean, quinoa
Complementary Proteins -low quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) -Marasmus -Kwashiorkor
Marasmus -Chronic PEM -Children 8-16 months: poverty & "little old people" -Impaired growth, wasting of muscles, impaired brain development, lower body temperature -digestion & absorption
Kwashiorkor -Acute PEM -Children 18 months to 2 years -Develops rapidly -Edema, fatty liver, inflammation, infections, skin and hair changes -Marasmus-Kwashiorkor mix: edema and wasting
Health Effects of protein (High protein Diet) -Heart Disease:animal protein intake may be cause -Cancer:Protein rich diet not shown to be a problem but Red meat linked to colon cancer incidence -Kidney Disease:Accl of kidney deterioration & High levels of urea disposal -Osteoporosis -Weight contr
Osteoporosis -Calcium excretion increases -Ideal ratio has not been determined -Animal protein intake suggested by some research to result in greater bone loss
Recommended Intakes of Protein 1. Needed Dietary protein -Source of essential amino acids & Practical source of nitrogen 2. AMDR=10 to 35 percent of daily energy intake 3.RDA:Adults = 0.8 grams/kg of body weight/day -Presumes adequate energy is consumed
Protein Supplements -muscle work builds muscles -may be helpful if protein intake is low
Amino Acid Supplements -Potential risks associated with intake: May prevent the use of other amino acids -Branched-chain aa’s not helpful
Created by: jessiedig