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Chapter 10-Jones

Chapter 10 Geography

On which continent is Egypt located? Africa
Mesopotamia was located in what modern day country? Iraq
The earliest known civilizations were in ________ and __________. Egypt and Mesopotamia
What 2 rivers was Mesopotamia located between? Tigris and Euphrates
The earliest city-states arose in an area of __________ called ____________. Mesopotamia called Sumer
The Sumerians invented what three things? plow, sailboat, and wheel
The Sumerian writing was called ___________. cuneiform
Sumerians wrote the _________ of ___________, the world’s oldest written epic story Epic of Gilgamesh
Babylon’s King ____________ conquered Mesopotamia about 1800 B.C. Hammurabi
Why is the Code of Hammurabi important to law? It is the basis for all future laws.
The second Babylonian Empire was known for the “________ __________” King Nebuchadnezzar built. They were one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. "hanging gardens"
The Phoenicians were traders from modern-day _________ and they created an __________ that was the basis for Hebrew, Greek, Latin and English. Lebanon alphabet
Egypt’s civilization grew up around the _____ River. Nile
What is the Nile’s delta? A fan-shaped fertile area near the Mediterranean.
List 3 geographical features that protected Egypt from invasion. Waterfalls, desert, and sea
What are the Nile’s waterfalls called? cataracts
Egypt’s rulers were called _________. The word means “great house.” pharaohs
Why did the Egyptians preserve dead bodies? They believed the soul could not exist without a body.
What were the pyramids used for? Protect the pharaohs’ bodies from robbers, floods, and wild animals
Egyptian writing was called _________. hieroglyphics
What is papyrus and how was it used? A plant used to make a form of paper
What 3 monotheistic religions started in Southwest Asia? Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Once known as Israelites, today’s followers of Judaism are known as ____. Jews
The Jewish holy book is the ______. Torah
The Jews believe they are descended from _________ and ___________. Abraham and Sarah
The Jews believe God made a covenant with Abraham. What is that covenant? If Abraham moved to the land of Canaan (Palestine), he would be blessed and all nations would be blessed through him.
What Jewish prophet were the 10 Commandments given to? Moses
What is the Jewish festival of Passover? The celebration of when pharaoh released the Israelites from slavery.
______ _________ is the Jewish New Years Day Rosh Hashana
__________ or the Day of Atonement is marked by a 24 hour period of prayer and fasting. Yom Kippur
In the A.D. 600s the monotheistic religion of _______ arose in Southwest Asia. Islam
Islam’s greatest prophet is _________. Muhammad
Followers of Islam are called _______. Muslims
______ is the Islamic word for God. Allah
According to Muhammad what will happen on the Day of Judgment? God will decide if your good deeds outweigh your bad deeds, and he will punish evildoers and reward the just
What city became the center of Islam? Mecca/Makkah
What is the Hijrah? When Muhammad fled for his life to Yathrib/Medina.
What is the Ka’aba? A sacred black stone, the holiest spot in Mecca.
Islam is divided into 2 groups. They do not always get along. Name the 2 groups. Sunni and Shiites
The Muslim Holy book is the _____. Koran/Quran
List the 5 pillars of Islam. 1- Confession of faith, “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.” 2- pray fives times per day, facing the holy city Mecca 3- give charity to those in need 4- fast 5- pilgrimage to Mecca/Makkah (hajj)
The _____ is the journey to Makkah. hajj
The Christians believe that _____ is the messiah or savior. Jesus
What did Jesus preach about God? God loved all people, even those who have sinned.
What happened to Jesus around 30 A.D.? When Jesus went to celebrate Passover in Jerusalem, he was convicted of treason and was crucified (executed on a cross).
What did over 500 followers of Jesus say happened 3 days after his death? He had risen from the dead.
Despite persecution from the _____________ Christianity spread through the Empire and became legal in 300 A.D. Roman Empire
After it was legalized Christianity was divided into what 2 major denominations? Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox
_________ began among the Jews and spread to non-Jews. It is one of the major influences in Western Civilization. Christianity
The Catholics followed the ____ in Rome and the Eastern Orthodox followed the __________ in Constantinople. pope and patriarch
___________ has more followers than any other religion. Christianity
The most important Christian holiday is ______. Easter
________ is the celebration of Jesus’ birth. Christmas
Created by: cwparker