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DNA & Protein

DNA & Protein Synthesis Vocabulary

TermDefinition
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; the nucleic acid that carries instructions for making proteins
Double Helix A twisted ladder; describes the structure of DNA
Nucleotide The building blocks of DNA and RNA; composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base
Genetic Code Information carried from generation to generation by DNA
RNA The nucleic acid responsible for building proteins
mRNA Messenger RNA; carries information from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
tRNA Transfer RNA; carries the amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
rRNA ribosomal RNA; helps to assemble the amino acids into proteins
Adenine A nitrogen base found in the DNA and RNA; abbreviated A
Thymine A nitrogen base found only in DNA; abbreviated T
Guanine A nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA; abbreviated G
Cytosine A nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA; abbreviated C
Uracil A nitrogen base only found in RNA; abbreviation U
Deoxyribose The sugar that helps make up the nucleotides of DNA
Ribose The sugar that helps make up the nucleotides of RNA
Codon Found on mRNA; a 3 letter code that determines the amino acids that will make up a protein
Anticodon Found on tRNA; a 3 letter complement to the Codon that allows the amino acids to bond in the correct sequence
Mutation A mistake or change in the DNA sequence; can be harmful or beneficial
Recombination The process by which genetic materials are broken down and joined to other genetic material
Insertion A type of mutation in which a base is added to a DNA sequence
Deletion A type of mutation in which a base is removed from DNA sequence
Chromosomal Mutations A type of mutation that involves all or part of a chromosome being changed
Replication The process of creating an exact copy of DNA
Transcription Occurs in the nucleus; the process of creating a protein from mRNA
Translation Occurs in the cytoplasm; the process of creating a protein from mRNA
Complementary Strand of DNA Strand of DNA that "matches" the original strand of DNA during replication
Cloning The process of producing populations of genetically identical individuals
Human Genome Project Scientific research project whose goal is to determine the exact sequence of base pairs in DNA and "map" the 20-25k in the body
Genetic Engineering Manipulation of genes to archive desired trails in the body
Forensic Identification Use of DNA to identify specific objects
Watson & Crick pair of scientists who determines the 3-D structure
Franklin Scientists who used x-rays to determine that DNA
Chargoff Scientists who determined the rules for the paining of bases in DNA
Created by: 2015olivierag