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Embryo_Kaplan

QuestionAnswer
What is the maternal component of the placenta? Decidua basalis
What is the fetal component of the placenta? cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast
Mandibular dysostosis (abnormally formed mandible, ears, and palate) is due to abnormal development of which pharyngeal arches? 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches
The stomach (including the pylorus) is derived from which part of the primitive gut and what is its blood supply? foregut - celiac artery
What is the failure of recanalization of part of the embryonic gut? duodenal atresia
What contains all 3 germ layers? teratomas - ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
Where are the 3 germ layers derived from? primitive streak
What gives rise to early neural cells called "glioblasts"? neuroepithelial cells
Glioblasts give rise to what kind of cells? neuroglial cells including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
PDA shunts blood from where to where? left pulmonary artery to aorta
What does the thyroid diverticulum develop into? thyroid gland
Where does the thyroid diverticulum form? midline near foramen cecum
What is the congenital displacement of urethral opening onto ventral surface of the penis? hypospadias
Hypospadias is due to what? malformation of urethral groove and canal
Hypospadias are associated with what? increased frequency of UTI and sterility
Blood in the umbilical vein is how much saturated with O2? 80%
What are the 3 important shunts of the fetal circulation? ductus venosus, foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus
How does blood bypass hepatic circulation? ductus venosus into IVC
Where is most oxygenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC diverted through? foramen ovale
Where is deoxygenated blood from the SVC expelled into? pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus to the lower body of the fetus
How does the ductus arteriosus close? inc O2 leads to dec PG
What helps close the PDA? indomethacin
What helps keep the PDA open? prostaglandins
The umbilical arteries become what postnatally? medial umbilical ligaments
The allantois becomes what postnatally? urachus -> median umbilical ligaments
What is the part of the allantoic duct btwn the bladder and umbilicus? urachus
What is the 1st aortic arch derivative? part of MAXillary artery (branch of external carotid) - 1st arch is MAXimal
What is the 2nd aortic arch derivatives? Stapedial artery and hyoid artery - Second = Stapedial
What is the 3rd aortic arch derivatives? common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal carotid artery - C is 3rd letter of alphabet
What is the 4th aortic arch derivative on left? aortic arch (4 limbs = systemic)
What is the 4th aortic arch derivative on right? proximal part of right subclavian artery (4 limbs = systemic)
What is the 6th aortic arch derivative? proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (on left only) ductus arteriosus (pulmonary and pulmonary-to-systemic shunt - ductus arteriosus)
What does the telencephalon develop into? cerebral hemispheres (walls), lateral ventricles (cavities)
What does the diencephalon develop into? thalami (walls), 3rd ventricle (cavities)
What does the mesencephalon develop into? midbrain (walls), aqueduct (cavities)
What does the metencephalon develop into? pons and cerebellum (walls), aqueduct and 4th ventricle (cavities)
What does the myelencephalon develop into? medulla (walls), 4th ventricle (cavities)
What is associated with low folic acid intake during pregnancy? neural tube defects
Failure of bony spinal canal to close, but no structural herniation describes which defect? spina bifida occulta
Where is spina bifida occulta usually seen? lower vertebral levels
Which part is intact in spina bifida occulta? dura
Meninges herniate through the spinal canal defect describes what? meningocele
Meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect describes what? myelomeningocele
Neonate born with no brain/calvarium with only a medulla describes what? anencephaly
Anencephaly is malformation of what? anterior end of neural tube
Which NTD does not have an increase in AFP? spina bifida occulta
Patient with decreased separation of hemisheres across midline. Diagnosis? holoprosencephaly
Holoprosencephaly is associated with which syndromes? Patau's syndrome and severe fetal alcohol syndrome
Spina bifida, meningocele, and meningomyelocele are malformations of what? posterior end of neural tube
Syringomyelia is associated with what? chiari II malformation
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramen magnum with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephaly describes what? chiari type II
Chiari II often presents with what? syringomyelia, thoracolumbar myelomeningocele
Which location is syringomyelia most common at? c8-t1
What is the branchial apparatus composed of? branchial clefts, arches, and pouches
Name the branchial apparatus from outside to inside? CAP - Clefts = ectoderm, Arches = mesoderm, Pouches = endoderm
Branchial arch 1 derivatives are supplied by which cranial nerves? CN V2 and V3
Branchial arch 2 derivatives are supplied by which cranial nerves? CN 7
Branchial arch 3 derivatives are supplied by which cranial nerves? CN 9
Branchial arch 4 and 6 derivatives are supplied by which cranial nerves? CN 10
Out of CN V2, V3, VII, IX, and X, which are all sensory and motor, which is the only one that is sensory? CN V2
Which action is associated with arch 1 derivative? chewing
Which action is associated with arch 2 derivative? facial expression
Which action is associated with arch 3 derivative? stylopharyngeus
Which action is associated with arch 4 derivative? swallowing
Which action is associated with arch 6 derivative? speaking
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 1 derivatives are meckle's composed of? mandible, malleus, incus, sphenomandibular ligament
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 1 derivatives are the muscles composed of? muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, lateral and medial pterygoids), mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior 2/3 of tongue
What syndrome is associated with Branchial arch 1 derivatives? Treacher Collins syndrome - 1st-arch neural crest fails to migrate -> mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 2 derivatives are reichert's cartilage composed of? stapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 2 derivatives are the muscles composed of? muscles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 3 derivatives is the cartilage composed of? greater horn of hyoid
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 3 derivatives is the muscle composed of? stylopharyngeus (glossopharyngeal nerve)
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 3 derivatives is associated with which syndrome? congenital pharyngocutaneous fistula - persistence of cleft and pouch -> fistula btwn tonsillar area, cleft in lateral neck
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 4-6 derivatives are the cartilages composed of? thyroid, cricoid, arytenois, corniculate, cuneiform
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 4-6 derivatives are the 4th arch muscles composed of? most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
What branchial (pharyngeal) arch 4-6 derivatives are the 6th arch muscles composed of? all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
What nerve branch is associated with branchial arch 4 derivatives? CN 10 - superior laryngeal branch - swallowing
What nerve branch is associated with branchial arch 6 derivatives? CN 10 - recurrent laryngeal branch - speaking
Branchial arches 3 and 4 form which part of the tongue? posterior 1/3 of tongue
1st branchial cleft develops into what? external auditory meatus
2nd through 4th branchial clefts develops into what? temporary cervical sinuses
What are the temporary cervical sinuses obliterated by? proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme
What causes a persistent cervical sinus? branchial cleft cyst within lateral neck
The 1st branchial pouch develops into what? middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
The 2nd branchial pouch develops into what? epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
The 3rd branchial pouch (dorsal wings) develops into what? inferior parathyroids
The 3rd branchial pouch (ventral wings) develops into what? thymus
The 4th branchial pouch (dorsal wings) develops into what? superior parathyroids
What does the 1st branchial pouch contribute to? endoderm-lined structures of ear
What does the 3rd branchial pouch contribute to? 3 structures (thymus, left and right inferior parathyroids)
Where do the 3rd branchial pouch structures end up? below 4th branchial pouch structures
What occurs in the aberrant development of 3rd and 4th branchial pouches? DiGeorge syndrome
What does DiGeorge syndrome lead to? T-cell deficiency (thymic aplasia) and hypocalcemia (failure of parathyroid development)
In ear development, the 1st branchial arch develops into which bones? malleus/incus
In ear development, the 1st branchial arch develops into which muscles (innervation)? tensor tyMpani (V3)
In ear development, the 2nd branchial arch develops into which bones? stapes
In ear development, the 2nd branchial arch develops into which muscles? stapedius (VII)
In ear development, the 1st branchial cleft develops into what? external auditory meatus
In ear development, the 1st branchial membrane develops into what? tympanic membrane
In ear development, the 1st branchial pouch develops into what? eustachian tube, middle ear cavity, mastoid air cells
What is the origin that is infected in otitis media? 1st branchial pouch (eustachian tube, middle ear cavity, mastoid air cells)
What is the origin of development of the posterior 1/3 tongue? 3rd and 4th branchial arches
What is the CN that provides taste and sensation to the posterior 1/3 tongue in the area closer to the foramen cecum? CN 9
What is the CN that provides taste and sensation to the posterior 1/3 tongue in the area in the extreme posterior? CN 10
What is the origin of development of the anterior 2/3 tongue? 1st branchial arch
What is the CN that provides sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? CN V3
What is the CN that provides taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? CN 7
What is the CN that provides motor innervation to the tongue? CN 12
What is the CN that provides pain to the tongue? CN V3, IX, X
What is the CN that provides taste to the tongue? CN 7,9,10 (solitary nucleus)
What arises from the floor of the primitive pharynx, descends into the neck? thyroid diverticulum
The thyroid diverticulum is connected to the tongue by what? thyroglossal duct
What is a normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct? foramen cecum
What is the MC ectopid thyroid tissue site? tongue
What occurs in the midline neck and will move with swallowing? thyroglossal duct cyst
Cleft lip is failure of fusion of what? maxillary and medial nasal processes
What is associated with formation of primary palate? cleft lip
Cleft palate is failure of fusion of what? lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or median palatine process
What is associated with formation of secondary palate? cleft palate
The diaphragm is derived from what? (Several Parts Build Diaphragm) 1. septum transversum 2. pleuroperitoneal folds 3. body wall 4. dorsal mesentery of esophagus
What does the septum transversum develop into? central tendon
What does the dorsal mesentery of esophagus develop into? crura
What is the innervation of the diaphragm? C3, 4, 5
What are the embryonic origins of the GI tract? foregut, midgut, hindgut
What does the foregut develop into? pharynx to duodenum
What does the midgut develop into? duodenum to transverse colon
What does the hindgut develop into? distal transverse colon to rectum
What pathology results from the failure of lateral body folds to fuse? gastroschisis
What happens to the abdominal contents in gastroschisis? extrusion through abdominal folds
What pathology results from the persistence of herniation of abdominal contents into umbilical cord? omphalocele
Patient is 2 weeks old who has been experiencing nonbilious projectile vomiting and has a palpable "olive" mass in the epigastric region. Diagnosis? Congenital pyloric stenosis
What is congenital pyloric stenosis associated with? Turner's and Edward's
What is the pancreas derived from? foregut
What does the ventral pancreatic bud become? pancreatic head, uncinate process (lower half of head), and main pancreatic duct
What does the dorsal pancreatic bud become? everything else (body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct)
What is an annular pancreas? ventral pancreatic bud abnormally encircles 2nd part of duodenum forming ring of pancreatic tissue that may narrow duodenum
What does the spleen arise from? dorsal mesentery (hence mesodermal)
What is the arterial supply of the spleen? artery of the foregut (celiac artery)
What embryologic part of the kidney develops in the 4th week then degenerates? pronephros
What embryologic part of the kidney functions as the interim kidney for the 1st trimester? mesonephros
What embryologic part of the kidney later contributes to the male genital system? mesonephros
What embryologic part of the kidney develops into the permanent kidney? metanephros
What embryologic part of the kidney develops into the kidney from the glomerulus to the DCT? metanephros
What embryologic part of the kidney develops into the bladder, urethra, and allantois? urogenital sinus
What embryologic part of the kidney is derived from the mesonephros and gives rise to the collecting duct, calyces, pelvises, and ureter? ureteric bud
Patient has bilateral renal agenesis which will cause which syndrome? potter's syndrome
What is the malformation in potter's syndrome? ureteric bud
Where do the kidneys get trapped in horseshoe kidneys? inferior mesenteric artery
What is the function of the kidneys in horseshoe kidneys? normal
What is the default genital development? female
What embryologic part degenerates and what part develops for the female genitalia to develop? mesonephric duct degenerates and paramesonephric duct develops
What gene on the Y chromosome codes for the testis-determining factor? SRY gene
What is secreted by the testes (sertoli cells) to suppress the development of the paramesonephric ducts? mullerian inhibiting substance
What will cause the development of the mesonephric ducts? increased androgens (Leydig cells)
What embryologic part develops into male internal structures? mesonephric (wolffian) duct
What male internal structures does the mesonephric (wolffian) duct develop into? SEED - seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, and ductus deferens
What does the paramesonephric (mullerian) duct develop into? fallopian tube, uterus, and upper 1/3 of vagina
What embryologic part develops into the lower 2/3 of the vagina? urogenital sinus
What results from fusion of the paramesonephric ducts? bicornuate uterus
Bicornuate uterus is associated with what? urinary tract abnormalities and infertility
The genital tubercle will develop into what? penis (DHT) and clitoris (estrogen)
The genital tubercle will develop into what? corpus spongiosum (DHT) and vestibular bulbs (estrogen)
The urogenital sinus will develop into what? bulbourethral glands (of cowper) (DHT) and greater vestibular glands (of bartholin) (estrogen)
The urogenital sinus will develop into what? prostate gland (DHT) and urethral and paraurethral glands (of skene) (estrogen)
The urogenital folds will develop into what? ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra) (DHT) and labia minora (estrogen)
The labioscrotal swelling will develop into what? scrotum (DHT) and labia majora (estrogen)
Abnormal opening of the penile urethra on the inferior (ventral) side of the penis. Diagnosis? hypospadias
Hypospadias are caused by what? failure of urethral folds to close
Abnormal opening of penile urethra on superior (dorsal) side of penis. Diagnosis? epispadias
Epispadias are due to what? faulty positioning of genital tubercle
What is associated with epispadia? exstrophy of bladder
Which is more common: hypospadias or epispadias? hypospadias
Why should hypospadias be corrected? prevent UTIs
The chorionic plate is made by whom? fetus
The heritable mental retardation condition associated with chromosomal breakage is what? fragile X syndrome
What does chronic ureteral reflux lead to? scarring of renal parenchyma which leads to decrease in blood flow then increase RAAS then HTN then renal failure
Neuroblastoma is associated with which gene? n-myc
What is the defect in achondroplasia? cell-signaling defect involving fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
Mutations in transcription factors such as homeoboxgenes produce what kind of abnormalities? supernumerary ribs and digits
Created by: eandres1