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plsc 261

TermDefinition
most similar systems design takes similar political systems ans studies their differences, if we find different outcomes, the factor we hypothesized must not be the problem
Most Different Systems Design takes different political systems and looks for similarities in the differences
Agenda Setting takes different political systems and looks for similarities in the differences
Federalism 2 levels of government
Summit Federalism Summits of the Chief Executives (PM and Premiers in Canada)
Symmetrical Federalism All regional governments are responsible for the same things
Asymmetrical Federalism Certain regions have different powers than others
Interstate Federalism Relationship between federal and sub-national level
Executive Federalism Reltionship of officials at federal and sub-national levels (day-to-day)
Intrastate Federalism State interests at federal level
Dual (Layer cake) Federalism Older; Two levels of government function separately, anonymous of the other
Cooperative (Marble cake) Federalism Modern; Emphasis on interdependence of two levels
Confederation A union of sovereign states that retain their sovereignty and power, but coordinate their activities in certain respects (ex: currency)
Unitary System Only one level of government above local level; constitutions in unitary states confer all power politically to the national (central) government, to amend the powers given thereto, or to abolish them altogether.
Deconcentration Central government functions are executed by staff in the field
Decentralization Central government functions are executed by subnational authorities
Devolution Central government grants some decision-making authority to lower levels.
Unicameralism having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Usually in small and homogenous unitary states.
Bicameralism having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Federal system. Heterogeneous society.
Committee deliberative assembly which remains subordinate to the legislative chamber it stems from.
Standing Committee committee established as official and permanent providing for its scope of powers.
Select Committee committee made up of small number of parliamentary members appointed to deal with a particular areas or issues
Joint/Conference Committee only in bicameral legislature. Committee between the two houses of bicameral legislature.
Single-Member District Plurality System Also known as First Past the Post. Country divided into electoral districts; only one representative elected in each district; winner is candidate with most votes, not necessarily majority; examples: USA, Canada, UK, India
Single-Member District Majority System Country divided into electoral districts; only one representatives elected in each district; winner is candidate with 50% +1 in first round or second round; if no candidate has 50% +1 in first round, go to second; examples: France, Haiti
Proportional Representation Goal is to consciously reduce disparity between a party's share of the vote and parliamentary seats
Parliamentary System Separate heads of state; fused legislative and executive branches; responsible government; less secure; non-fixed term; majority rule, party discipline; vote of no confidence
Presidential System One head of state and government; separation of legislative-executive powers; checks and balances between branches of government; more secure tenure; fixed term; weapon of presidential veto power; weapon of legislature: impeachment, veto, ratifications
Semi-presidential system separate heads of state and government, but head of state has power over head of government if they are from the same party and he becomes more ceremonial if they aren't.
Head of State Takes care of all diplomatic and ceremonial issues in head role. Leads the executive
Head government takes care of all internal and national issues in head role. Leads the legislature.
Collective Cabinet responsibility Every cabinet member must publicly support cabinet policy or resign
Individual Ministerial Responsibility each minister is responsible for everything in their department, regardless of their involvement
Cabinet government cabinet determines all overall policy through discussion
Prime Ministerial Government PM is dominant figure dealing directly with individual ministers
Ministerial Government ministers operate with little direction from PM or cbinet
Positive Law term generally used to describe man-made laws which bestow specific privileges upon, or remove them from, an individual or group
Common Law law developed informally y the courts in order to settle the litigation before them; use of inductive reasoning (from specific manifestations to general first principles);
Common Law adversarial style (one party vs another, judge as referee); reliance mostly on case law as precedents for resolving litigation; little credence given to legal and academic writings
Civil Code Law law developed in universities and given statutory force by legislatures; use of deductive reasoning (abstract or general first principles applied by specific manifestations);
Civil Code Law inquisitorial style (judge takes more proactive role in leading the case, asking questions, etc.); codified law and statutes are primary sources of law; considerable credence given to legal and academic writings
Constitutional Court adjudicates disputes between different branches of government, different levels of government, the state and citizen over basic rights (the protection of individual rights),
Constitutional Court and determines the legality/constitutionality of government decision sand legislation
Concrete Judicial Review judicial review taken when an existing law is challenged in the course of, or following, a specific court case; the constitutional court then passes judgement on the constitutionality of the law. Retrospective
Abstract Judicial Review judicial review that can challenge the constitutionality of a law on principle alone, allowing it to be examined without reference to a specific court case
Abstract Judicial Review Exercised in two ways: 1) "A Posteriori" law referred to court after its promulgation; 2) "A Priori" law referred after final adoption by parliament, but before promulgation
Interest group collections of individuals who share common beliefs, attitudes, values or concerns;
Interest group do not seek direct control over government nor do they recruit, nominate, and elect public officials; concentrate on affecting legislation, policy and programs in specific areas of special interest
Anomic Groups people who come together spontaneously to voice their disapproval with a government action - unorganized
Non-associational group unorganized, spontaneous, but people share something that binds them beyond the one activity, like race, religion, etc.
Associational group organized, staffed, structured, more permanent like a labor union
Institutional group main purpose isn't to push influence on government, but can if they so desire
Pressure group subset of the associational group that is organized exclusively for the purpose of political lobbying;
Pressure group very narrow in scope - usually related to a single issue - and ostensibly temporary; once its policy objective is achieved, it no longer has a reason for being
Statist model of policy-making state is above and separate from civil society; private interest groups are not considered quite legitimate and the state seeks to make policy independently and then impose them on society
Statist model of policy-making this policy-making model implies a strong state and weak interest groups
Pluralist model of policy-making multiple interest groups may represent a single societal interest (like a union); membership in groups is non-compulsory and limited; groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure
Pluralist model of policy-making clear separation between interest groups and government; interest groups are considered legitimate actors; interest groups compete or attention of policy makers; not officially involved in policy-making;
Pluralist model of policy-making state may cease to be recognizable as an entity at all, becoming merely one actor in t he competition for influence; this policy-making model implies a weak state and strong interest groups
Corporatist model of policy-making a single peak association normally represents each societal interest; membership in the peak association is often compulsory and nearly universal
Corporatist model of policy-making peak associations are centrally organized and direct the actions of their members; groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy
Corporatist model of policy-making instead of emphasizing competition between groups, like pluralist model, they cooperate with each other and the state;
Corporatist model of policy-making they are highly structured and centralized, with near universal membership and thus able to speak authoritatively for their respective sectors and bargain with the government; this policy-making model implies both a strong state and strong interest grousp
Political Party this is an institution which (a) seeks influence in a state, often by attempting to occupy positions in government, and (b) usually consists of more than a single interest in the society and so to some degree influences government.
Party System the nmber and charcter of reltions between and amng relevant politcal parties ina given polity;a political party is relevant ifit has coalition potential or blackmail potential;the direction of a competition in thiz canbe either centripetal or centrifugal
Durham Report Lord Durham sent from UK to Canada to recommend how to solve early Canadian problems. He recommended "responsible government" for the British colonies and the amalgamation ofthe Upper and Lower Canada for the assimilation oftHe french-speaking population
British North America Act Canada's leaders asked Great Britain for consent to unite provinces because they were still technically a colony. They had no power to unite. British parliament granted their request with this Act.
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council Council of British Lords who interpreted the British North America Act for Canada until the establishment of Canadian Supreme Court
Statute of Westminster marked the effective legislative independence of the self-governing dominions of the British Empire, including Canada
Governor General Head of state in Canada. Appointed by Prime Minister and "reports" to the Crown of England, who is officially head of state in Canada when he/she is there.
Regionalism Canada's vast size and distribution of people groups grow this feeling of ties to a specific area. Concerns of this area are felt to be more important than national concern.
Separatism Division of regions leads to this feeling in Quebec. Many french-speakers see Quebec as a nation in its own right.
General Santa Anna Mexican leader in mid-1800s. Won battle of the Alamo in San Antonio, but was eventually defeated in attempting to annex Texas. Ended up giving US most of modern-day California, Arizona, New Mexico.
Benito Juarez President of Mexico in mid-1800s, but was unseated by French government and then reinstated after overthrowing of Archduke Maximilian of Austria
Benito Juarez Introduced political changes like strong civil liberties, regular elections, reduction of church powers, etc. Changes didn't help unrest and he was overthrown in 1877.
Porfiriato General that overthrew Benito Juarez and established military government. Helped develop stability in Mexican government.
Porfiriato Dominated Mexican politics for 35 years, as president for all by four. Expanded railroads, opened new areas to settlers.
Porfiriato There was a lack of political freedom, but lots of economic stability. Businessmen, foreign investors, and big landowners became wealthy, but peasantry suffered.
Porfiriato In 1910, middle class rebellion breaks out and he is exiled.
Mexican Revolution Brief and violent war in Mexico between three groups: Zapata's peasants, Pancho Villa's farmers and workers, and Caranza's ranchers and businessmen.
Lazaro Cardenas President in 1934-40, most left-wing of Mexican presidents. Redistributed more land than his seven predecessors combined, supported labor unions and launched program of nationalization.
Lazaro Cardenas Brought several industries under state controls to keep foreigners out, like oil industry.
Industrial Revolution Party (PRI) also known as the PRI, this Mexican Political party controlled Mexican politics from 1945 to the late 90's. May have used fraudulent means to win '88 election.
Industrial Revolution Party (PRI) Lost majority for first time in '97 in one house, and lost senate majority and presidency in 2000
Created by: tomstew127