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Ch. 13 questions


If one bacterium goes through four generations, how many bacteria will result? 4 generations of a bacterium will produce 16 bacteria
How long will it require 10 bacteria to grow into more than one hundred bacteria if the doubling time is 30 minutes? 2 hours
what does exponential growth mean? in every generation(growth cycle) twice as many cells are formed--in contrast to adding one individual each generation
Explain what bacteria are doing in each of the 4 phases lag phase--cells adapt to nutrients--prepare for cell division--log phase--cells double at regular intervals--stationary phase--cell #'s maintained-do not grow due to nutrient depletion--decline phase--cells begin to die--lack of energy and nutrients
Define autolysis. Why may a bacterium autolyse? autolyse is breakdown of organism because of its own purpose and mechanism--bacteria autolyse in order to spread/enhance growth of survivors
How can the number of viable cells in a culture be determined? viable cells are determined by performing dilutions at each time point--spread aliquotes on petri dishes--count number of colonies that grow
What is the meaning of CFU? Colony forming unit--each viable cell that can grow into a colony on a petri plate is a CFU
What information does a turbidimetric assay yeild? how many bacterial cells, living/dead--present by use of spectrophotometer--# differs from CFU #s--CFU #s only reflect viable cells
Anabolism use of energy and building blocks to make new cellular materials
Catabolism breakdown of complex materials that cells use for making more cells
Metabolism all the chemical processes occurring in a cell
Enzymes protein catalysts that cells use to convert some molecules into others
some enzymatic reactions are controlled by negative feedback. What happens when the product of a given reaction becomes high in concentration? when the cell in in an environment with ample amina acids--cell gets signal to save energy and not make its own amino acid
What is activation energy? the amount of heat necessary to cause a chemical reaction--enzymes can dramatically reduce activation energy
List the 3 major pathways of catabolism in organisms glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport
Name the starting compound of glycolysis. glucose
How many ATPs are produced by the following processes: A) glycolysis B) TCE cycle/electron transport glycolysis produces 2 ATPs--TCA cycle/electron transport produces 30 ATPs
Name the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration oxygen
Name 2 possible final electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration nitrate and sulfate
List six commercially valuable products produced by fermentation cheese, yogurt, vinegar, acetone, butyl alcohol, and beer and wine
Name 2 types of macromolecules for which building blocks, or precursor molecules, are required DNA, RNA, and amino acids
Created by: heatherlvn