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B4 Revision Cards

What is biodiversity? The variety of different species living in a habitat.
What is the difference between an ecosystem and a habitat? A habitat is where a plant or animal lives. An ecosystem is the interaction between the abiotic and biotic factors that are present.
What is the difference between a community and a population? A population is all the organisms of the same kind living in the same place, a community is all the populations living in one place.
Which has more biodiversity - natural or artificial ecosystems? Natural ecosystems like native woodlands and lakes.
What is the word equation for photosynthesis? Carbon Dioxide + Water = Oxygen and Glucose 6co2+6hy2o= 6o2+c6h12o6
How is glucose stored in plants? As insoluble starch - this can be tested for with iodine.
When do plants carry out respiration? All the time - thats how they get energy to grow.
Give four ways plants use glucose. For energy in respiration, growth and repair, making cellulose cell walls and for storage as fats and starch.
Name the limiting factors of photosynthesis Carbon dioxide, light and temperature.
Why is starch a good storage molecule? It is insoluble in water and does not affect the concentration of a cell. It will not affect osmosis.
Explain how leaves are adapted for efficient photosynthesis. Broad, thin, waterproof transparent epidermis top layer, stomata to allow CO2 to enter, a palisade layer with lots of chloroplasts to absorb light.
Give a definition of diffusion When particles randomly move from an area of high concentration to low concentration, until the concentrations even out. This does not require energy.
When is the rate of diffusion increased? When there is a shorter distance, a greater concentration gradient and a greater surface area.
Give a definition of osmosis When water particles randomly move from an area of high water concentration to low water concentration, until the concentrations even out. This does not require energy.
How does osmosis affect a plant cell? It allows cells to take in water. When they become turgid they stiffen and hold their shape. When they lose water they become flaccid and limp.(Wilt)
How would dilute blood and osmosis affect a red blood cell? It would absorb water and burst as RBCs do not have a cell wall.
Where does the oxygen for glucose come from? Carbon dioxide, the oxygen in water is released by the plant as a product of photosynthesis.
Four factors that increase the rate of transpiration. Light intensity, increased temperature, increased air movement and decreased humidity
Four reasons why transpiration is important. For cooling a plant, photosynthesis, support and movement of minerals.
What is transpiration? The evaporation and diffusion of water out of leaves.
How is a leaf adapted to reduce water loss? It has a waxy cuticle and only a small number of stomata on the upper surface.
Four minerals in fertilisers. Nitrates, phosphates. potassium and magnesium.
Why are nitrates important to plants? To make proteins for growth and repair.
How do plants take in minerals at their root hair cells. By active transport, the opposite of diffusion. This requires energy from respiration.
How are root hairs adapted for their function? They are long and have a large surface area for absorption.
List four factors that are important in decay. Temperature, oxygen, water and the presence of microorganisms
Six examples of how to preserve food from decay. Canning, cooling, freezing, drying, adding salt or sugar and adding vinegar.
what do all basic processes of life carried out by all living things depend on? chemical reactions within cells that require energy released by respiration
what is the lock and key model? it is where a molecule has to be the correct shape to be able to fit into the active shape of an enzyme
what happens if it is to hot for the molecule to go into the enzyme it will denature
what do enzymes do? they speed up chemical reaction
how do cells make enzymes? they make them according to the instuctions carried in genes
what can an increase of temperature do to an enzyme? if it only a little higher it can speed up the reaciotn
enzymes need an optimum ph and temperature
what are the main stages of photosynthesis? light energy absorbed by the chemical chlorophyll,energy used to bring about the reaction between carbon dioxide (co2) and water (h2o) to produce glucose (c6h12o6), oxygen (o2) produced as a waster product
what can glucose be converted into? starch for storage
where are minerals taken up by? from plant roots to make some chemicals needed by the cells
what is the movement of oxygen and co2 controlled by? diffusion
how to take a transect? A transect is line across a habitat or part of a habitat. It can be as simple as a string or rope placed in a line on the ground. The number of organisms of each species can be observed and recorded at regular intervals along the transect
what reactions to living organisms need that have released by respiration movement,synthesis of large molecule,active transport
aerobic respiration c6h1206+6o2=6co2+6h2o glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water
anaerobic respiration in animals glucose=lactic acid(+energy released)
anaerobic respiration in plant cells glucose=ethanol+carbon dioxide(+energy released)
what it the structure of a typical animal and microbial cell limited to? nucleus,cytoplasm,cell membrane,mitochondria (for animals and yeast),cell wall(for yeast and bacterial) circular DNA molecule(for bacteria cells)
what do mitochondrion do? it contains an enzyme for aerobic respiration
Created by: copleston
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