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Hematologic and Lymp

The formation of blood or blood cells in the living body Hematopoeisis or hematogenesis, sanguification
Clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood, lymph, or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended Plasma
Circulation of blood to the liver from the small intestine via the portal vein, the pathway of blood flow from the GI tract and spleen to the liver via the portal vein and its tributaries Hepatic portal circulation
RBC NORMAL VALUE MEN 4.7-6 million/mm3
RBC NORMAL VALUE WOMEN 4.2-5.4 million/mm3
Hgb normal value men 14-18g/100mL
Hgb normal value women 12-16g/100mL
Hct normal value men 42-52%
Hct normal value women 37-47%
WBC normal value 5,000-10,000/mm3
Protein substance found on a red blood cell that allows it to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin contains ___, making it an excellent vehicle for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide Iron
What is the role of an erythrocyte? RBC responsible of transporting oxygen throughout the body
What factors affect the production of healthy erythrocytes? Anemia, vit B-12 deficiency,
What is hemoglobin, and why is it important Protein substance found on a red blood cell that allows it to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, without it, transport of O2 can?t be done to different cells of the body.
What is Sickle cell anemia Inherited and sometimes serious anemia, caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent (sickle) shape. These irregular-shaped red blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red bloo
What are the other different types of anemia? Iron-deficiency anemia (Iron makes hgb); Vitamin deficiency (B12 that makes RBC); Bone marrow and stem cell problems;hemolytic anemia
What are the causes of the different types of anemia? Blood loss (hemorrhage, ulcer, cancer, menstruation, childbirth); Decreased red blood cell production (iron/B12 deficiency, bone marrow production pb); Destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia)
How can anemia be treated? Transfusion, transplant (bone marrow), eliminate the cause of blood loss, supplement of deficient component (iron supplement), surgery (stop bleeding); medication (menstruation)
Why are iron supplements important in discussion about the hematologic system? Iron synthesizes hemoglobin, which is important for RBC to be able to carry O2
What types of preparations/routes that can be used to administer iron? Oral
What important nursing interventions must you consider when giving oral iron supplements? Taken an hour before meals, Allergies, liver pb, alcohol use, check B12 deficiency, liquid version has sugar and/or alcohol, if breastfeeding
What are the different types of leukocytes? Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Largest leukocytes Monocytes
Most abundant leukocyte Neutrophils
Immune defense, phagocytosis, 1st line of defense Neutrophils
Defense against parasites Eosinophils
Inflammatory response Basophils
Antibody production Lymphocytes
Immune defenses, learn to phagocyte specific cells Monocytes
What is a complete blood count? What can it tell you? It?s a test that gives information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood, a combination of totals from the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, erythrocyte indices, hematocrit, and differential blood count. A CBC helps the doctor chec
Ratio of the volume of the red blood cells to the blood volume hematocrit
Number of specific types of white blood cells found in 1 cubic millimeter of blood differential blood count
Calculations for determining the average size, hemoglobin content, and concentration of red blood cells, including mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration erythrocyte indices
Where are leukocytes made? They are produced in the red bone marrow of our bones
What conditions will alter leukocyte production? Anemia, Autoimmune disease, Viral infection, Neutropenia (An undesirable side effect of some cancer treatments), Leukemia (cancer of the blood cells)
What are platelets? Thrombocytes, disk-shaped, smallest cells in the blood,
Where do platelets come from? Red bone marrow
What is importance of platelets? Essential for coagulation of blood and maintain homeostasis
WBC and platelets form__ buffy coat
Why is knowing a client?s blood type important? In case of transfusion, give him the right blood and avoid agglutination
What are the different blood types? A, B, AB, O
What antigens are present on the different types of blood? A, B, Rh
Lymphatic vessels pick up fluid in the ___ and return it to ___ in vessels near the ___ Lymphatic vessels pick up fluid in the tissue and return it to blood in vessels near the heart
Lymphatic capillaries are more or less permeable than blood capillaries? More. They can pick up fluid and protein left in the tissue as blood leaves capillary bed.
Fluid in the tissue spaces that carries protein molecules and other substances back to the blood Lymph
Difference btw afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels Afferent (4 or 5) carry lymph toward the center of a lymph node. Efferent (one) carry lymph from the center of a lymph node to outside.
Different tonsils and location Pharyngeal (Adenoids, Roof ofÿpharynx), tubal (roof of pharynx), 2 Palatines (at each rear of the throat), Lingual (Behindÿthe tongue)
What symptoms would indicate a person has an infection? Fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fevers, night sweats, chills, aches and pains.
What factors put a person at risk for an infection or decrease a person?s immunity? Decreased immune system secondary to disease, compromised circulation secondary to peripheral vascular disease, compromised skin integrity secondary to surgery, or repeated contact with contagious agents
What components of the blood are responsible for fighting infection? WBC-Lymphocytes
What amount of blood is pumped by an adult heart every minute? 5-6 Liters
Functions of the lymphatic system Transport excess fluid from the interstitial spaces to the circulatory system; Protect the body from infections
Occurs when the body does not have enough iron to synthesize functional Hgb Iron deficiency anemia
Symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia fatigue, palpitations, tachycardia, exertional dyspnea, pica, stomatitis, glossitis, and brittle hair.
Occurs when the bone marrow stops making enough blood cells Aplastic anemia
Symptoms of Aplastic anemia fatigue, weakness, fever, palpitations, headaches, mouth ulcers, petechiae, gingival bleeding, epistaxis
Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor Pernicious anemia
Symptoms of Pernicious anemia weakness, sore tongue, edema, ataxia, dizziness, dyspnea, headache, fever, blurred vision, etc.
Destruction of RBCs occurs, iron and hemoglobin are released Acquired Hemolytic anemia
Symptoms of Hemolytic anemia mild fatigue and pallor, jaundice, palpitations, hypotension, dyspnea, and back and joint pain
Treatment of Hemolytic anemia remove cause, also blood transfusions, spleenectomy, medications
Genetic disorder that causes abnormally shaped red blood cells. Sickle Cell Anemia (Inherited hemolytic anemia)
Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia Anemia, enlarged heart, fatigue, jaundice, chronic leg ulcers, tachypnea, dyspnea, arrhythmias, and severe pain
Who is at risk for developing Sickle Cell Disease? Blacks and people of Mediterranean descent
How is Sickle Cell Anemia transmitted? Inherited, genetic disease, from both parents
What are symptoms of sickle cell crisis? Severe pain, Anemia, Chest pain and difficulty breathing, Strokes, Joint pain and arthritis and bone infarctions, Blockage of blood flow in the spleen or liver, Severe infections
What treatment interventions would you expect for crisis? Immediate transfusion of packed red blood cells, alleviation (make it easy to tolerate) of severe abdominal and joint pain with analgesics or narcotics; oxygen therapy; hydration by oral or IV; electrolyte replacement
Increased production of red blood cells Polycythemia
Symptoms of Polycythemia headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, blurred vision, fatigue, weakness, pruritis, exertional dyspnea, angina, and increased blood pressure and pulse
Treatment of Polycythemia phlebotomy, medications, and dietary changes
Malignancy in which the bone marrow produces increased numbers of immature white blood cells that cannot protect the body from infections Leukemia
How many forms of leukemia? Acute myelogenous (AML); Acute lymphocytic (ALL); Chronic myelogenous (CML); Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
Symptoms of leukemia fever, chills, fatigue, pallor, malaise, tachycardia, tachypnea, petechiae, bruising, epistaxis, melena, gingival bleeding, increased menstrual bleeding
What parts of the body are affected by leukemia? WBC produced by bone marrow
What are common treatments for leukemia? Chemotherapy, radiation, blood products, antibiotics, and bone marrow transplants
What is myeloma, cause, treatment and prognosis? Cancer of the plasma cell. Malignant tumour of the bone marrow or composed of cells normally found in bone marrow. Caused by multiplication of plasma cells in the bone marrow and travel all over the body, at the same time inhibiting your body's production
What is the common cause of death for people diagnosed with leukemia? Infection alone or in combination (75%), hemorrhage (24%) and failure (9%)
Reduced number of granulocytes agranulocytosis
Syndrome of alternating clotting and hemorrhaging due to a primary disease process or condition DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
Define clotting factors A damage tissue triggers the formation of prothrombin activator, then Prothrombin activator and calcium convert prothrombin to thrombin, Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen and triggers formation of fibrin, which traps RBCs to form a clot.
What is the primary element of blood clot? Fibrin
Rare bleeding disorder in which the blood doesn't clot normally Hemophilia
What interventions are indicated for a client with hemophilia? Replacement of deficient factors with recombinant factor products or plasma is the primary treatment. Avoid multiple injections, big needles, extreme care for surgery or dental work. Avoid certain drugs that can aggravate bleeding problems (Aspirin, Hepar
Who is at risk for hemophilia? Male with family members with hemophilia, or family history of bleeding disorders.
How is hemophilia transmitted? son a mother who has it
Why do clients with hemophilia often die in childhood? The most common causes of death were bleeding in vital organs, especially the brain, and excessive bleeding after minor surgery or trauma. Those who survived were often crippled by the long-term effects of repeated hemorrhages into the joints
Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood Thrombocytopenia
Symptoms of Thrombocytopenia petechiae, ecchymoses, and bleeding from mucous membranes
Treatment of Thrombocytopenia transfusions of platelets, spleenectomy, medications, and diet changes
Rare lymphoma usually arising as painless swelling in a lymph node Hodgkin?s Lymphoma
Symptoms of HODGKIN?S LYMPHOMA Painless enlarged lymph nodes in neck, groin, above clavicles, fatigue, pruritis, fever, night sweats, anemia.
What nursing interventions are important for clients with leukemia? Avoid infection
Created by: fausfez