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nursing 165 mtc hematology

Platelets normals 150,000 – 400,000 mm
how long do platelets live? Live for 7 to 10 days
red blood cell normals 4,200,000 to 6,100,000/mm3
What do red blood cells produce? hemoglobin
What is a critical component in hemoglobin? iron
Hemoglobin normal for female? 12- 16 g/dl
Hemoglobin normal for male? 14 – 18 g/dl
White blood cell normal? 5000 – 10,000/uL
How long do white blood cells live? days to years
What does Hematopoiesis do? formation and production of blood cells
where does hematopoiesis happen? bone marrow
Where does Erythropoietin hormone primarily produce? kidney
What is gerontological problem that usually effects blood cell production? anemia
What blood value is sometimes falsely high with a condition of fluid volume? hematocrit
What is anemia? A condition in which the hemoglobin concentration is lower than normal,
what is Hypoproliferative anemias The marrow cannot produce adequate numbers of erythrocytes
What does the Hemolytic anemias involve? premature destruction of erythrocytes
What is anemia cause by? from dietary problems, genetic disorders, bone marrow disease or excessive bleeding
What is the most common reason for anemia? GI bleeding
What are the clinical signs of gradual onset of anemia? no symptoms, slight tachycardia and fatigue
what is the nursing management for anemia? fatigue
What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia? bleeding
What are the areas of the body that cause anemia? ulcers, gastritis, gi tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, menorrhagia, chronic alcoholics and other malabsorption conditions.
what are the clinical manifestation of iron deficiency anemia? Weakness, fatigue, dizziness, Pica (chew on ice that is another sign), Brittle, rigid, concave nails, Numbness and tingling, headache and ulcerated corners of the mouth
How long must you continue on medication for iron deficiency? 6 -12 months
iron replacement is poorly tolerated or absorbed, so how else can you administer this medication? IM injections or I.V. administration
What is the best way to administer IM iron medication? Z track
What food sources are high in iron? organ meats ( beef or calf’s liver, chicken liver), other red meats, beans (black, pinto, garbanzo), leafy green vegetables, raisins, molasses
What would you take with iron administration? orange juice
Vitamin C foods citrus fruits and juices, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli
how should liquid forms of iron be administered? through a straw
What anemia is caused by a Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency? Megaloblastic Anemia
Alcoholics have a increased need for, what mineral? folic acid
common causes of folic acid deficiency poor nutritution, malabsorption (Crohn’s disease) and drugs( alcohol), anticonvulsants and oral contraceptives
Folate sources green leafy vegetables, liver, dried beans, nuts and citrus fruits
Albumin is a protein in the plasma portion of the blood. Under normal conditions albumin cannot pass through the wall of a capillary. What significance is this for the vascular compartment? Helps retain fluid in the vascular compartment.
The instructor in the anatomy and physiology class is discussing the components of the blood. What would the instructor cite as the most abundant protein in plasma? albumin
 B12 deficiency results from poor intake of foods containing vitamin B 12 usually affects, who? strict Vegans
poor absorption of vitamin B 12 can be caused by? Small bowel resection, diverticula, tapeworm or overgrowth of intestinal bacteria
Signs and Symptoms for vitamin B12 Anemia? numbness and tingling in legs and feet.
Prevent and manage of vit. B12 by? oral supplements, vitamins or fortified soy milk
What causes Pernicious anemia? absence of intrinsic factor and body can't absorb B12
Who has a higher incidence of gastric cancer? Pernicious anemia
What is the medical management for a person with Pernicious anemia? Monthly injections of B12 for a lifetime?
What can Aplastic anemia be caused by? long-term exposure to toxic agents, ionizing radiation or infection, certain meds
What can trigger Aplastic Anemia? certain infections, pregnancy, chemicals, radiation demage and toxic material
symptoms of aplastic anemia? Fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased tolerance to activity
Pancytopenia means a deficiency in aplastic, leukopenia and thrombocytompenia
leukopenia means a reduction in white blood cells
thrombocytopenia means a reduction in platelets
Diagnostic test result for Hemolytic anemia? Reticulocyte count elevated, bilirubin increased, haptoglobin depleted
Sickle cell Anemia/Disease is genetic disorder that causes the hemoglobin to become sickled
Most common symptom of Sickle cell anemia in crisis pain
Other symptoms of sickle cell anemia besides pain? chronic anemia, pallor, skin cool to touch, jaundice, fatigue, dyspnea, tachycardia, cardiac murmurs, cardiomegaly, splenomegaly
what are the primary target sites of SCA spleen, lungs and cns
what are the complications of SCA? infection, stroke, renal failure, impotence, heart failure and pulmonary hypetension
Diagnostic test results for SCA: Hematocrit is low, reticulocyte is high, MCHC, total bilirubin high
triggers for sickle cell disease anesthesia, hypoxemia, low environmental temperature, infection, dehydration, excessive exercise
what drug is used for medical management of SCA? corticosteriods
what IV therapy is used for Sickle cell crisis D5W or D5.25NS
What medication is used for Sickle cell to stimulate fetal hemoglobin? hydroxyurea (hydrea)
What is the preferred medication for pain management when someone has SC crisis? morphine
SC crisis management O2, pain meds, hydrate with ND, HOB @ 30 degree or less,
PRIAPISM is persistent penile erection
What do you teach the patient to do, when the onset of PRIAPISM happens? empty bladder, exercise and take warm bathes
Neutropenia is decreased production of neutrophils or increased destruction of these cells
What do neutrophils do? essential in preventing and limiting infection
Cause of Neutropenia aplastic anemia, metastatic cancer, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hyperspenism
Neutropenic Precautions are strict hand washing, private room, no fresh fruits, vegetables, flowers, no visitors or staff with infection
Polycythemia is too many cells in the blood
What is a hallmark of polycythemia vera splenomegaly
PV Symptoms Persistently elevated hematocrit greater than 55% , A ruddy complexion, splenomegaly, headache, dizziness, tinnitis, paresthesias, fatigue, blurred vision, distension of superficial veins, weight loss, enlarged hemorrhoids
Diagnostics test results for PV RBC volume, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, B12 and uric acid count elevated
What are the complication of PV increased risk for thromhosis and bleeding
Medical management for PV Phlebotomy
What is phlebotomy used for with PV? to reduce high blood cell levels
What are the risk factors for PV complications smoking, obesity, poorly controlled hypertension
Things to avoid for those with PV aspirin, minimize alcohol intake, and iron supplements
PV patient with pruritis should do what? cool or tepid bath along with cocoa butter based lotions. Avoid vigorous toweling off after bathing
Which nursing intervention is most appropriate for a client with multiple myeloma Preventing bone injury
Both the liver and the spleen have a role in erythrocyte metabolism. How would this role best be described? The spleen removes erythrocytes after 120 days, and the liver removes severely damaged erythrocytes
What is a obvious sign of anemia pallor
Which type of leukocyte contains histamine and is an important part of hypersensitivity reactions? basophils
Primary function of the spleen? recycling or iron, pooling of platelets, and blood volume regulation
Pertinent findings of thrombocytopenia are? Bleeding gums, epistaxis, hematemesis, hypotension and tachypnea
Created by: 597389573
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