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Week 6 Spring Terms

Acidosis A disturbance in the acid-base balance of the body in which there is an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate
Alpha Cells Endocrine Islets of Langerhans cells which secretes glucagon
Beta Cells Pancreatic cells which secretes insulin
Carbohydrate Metabolism Polysaccharides and disaccharides are hydrolyzed to mono-saccharides glucose, fructose , and galactose-which are absorbed into the capillaries of the villi in the small intestine
Dawn Phenomenon Abrupt rise in blood glucose which usually occur between 5-9 am
Fasting Blood Sugar A test for blood sugar level used to detect disorders of metabolism
Glucose Tolerance Test A test done by giving a certain amount of glucose to the patient orally or IV. Blood samples are drawn at specific intervals and the blood glucose is determined in each sample.
Glycosuria The presence of glucose in the urine
HHNKS Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketonic Syndrome-Syndrome in which hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity predominate, with possible alterations of the sensorium
Hormone A substance originating in an organ, gland or part which is conveyed through the blood to another part of the body, stimulating a chemical action
Hyperglycemia Increase of blood sugar as in diabetes
Hyperinsulinism An excessive amount of insulin in the blood
Hypoglycemia Deficiency of sugar in the blood
Insulin 1) A hormone secreted by the beta cells in the Islet of Langehans in the pancreas. Essential for proper metabolism of blood sugar 2) A preparation used in medical treatment of diabetes
Insulin Reaction Hypoglycemia
Ketonuria Acetone bodies in the urine
Ketoacidosis The accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood which results in metabolic acidosis
Ketosis The accumulation in the body of ketone bodies frequently associated with acidosis and is often miscalled acidosis. Ketosis results from the incomplete metabolism of fatty acids
Kussmaul Respirations Very deep gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis and coma
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia Eating abnormally large amount of food at a meal
Polyuria Frequent and excessive amount of urination
Postprandial Following a meal
Retinopathy Any disorder of the retina
Somogyi A paradoxical situation in which sudden falls in blood sugar are followed by rebound hyperglycemia. Usual cause is gradual excessive administration of insulin
Type I Diabetes Mellitus A metabolic disorder characterized by an absence of insulin production due to autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas
Type II Diabetes Mellitus A metabolic disorder characterized by the relative deficiency of insulin production and a decrease in insulin action
Created by: nonelily