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Geology Test II

eons largest interval units
era smaller than an eon, includes several periods.
periods most common unit of geologic time
epoch often corresponds to a stratigraphic series
ages usually lasts between 5-10 million years
Best time division for evolutions of life over time. ages
chrons smallest subdivision of geologic time
eons include several eras
eons hundreds of millions or billions of years
eras includes 6-7 periods
periods one subdivision of an era, 30-80 million years
epochs used mainly in Cenozoic Era
Archean Eon 4.6-2.5 BYA
herbivore an animal that depends directly on plants as a source of nutrients
omnivores feed on plants and animals (ex: humans)primary
carnivore scavengers or preditors - any animal that depends on other animals (living or dead) for nutrients. secondary consumers
secondary consumer feed on primary consumers
detritivores consume detritus: waste products or bits of dead tissue.
primary detritivore feed directly on detritus
secondary detritivore feed on primary detritivores
saprophytes an organism, especially a fungus or bacterium, that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter
parasites an organism that lives in or on another organism (it's host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense.
parasites anthrapods such as lice, ticks, mites, and many insects infesting plants.
phagotroph an organism that obtains nutrients through the ingestion of solid organic matter.
phagocytosis The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and ameboid protozoans
nectavore animals who feed on nectar
browser able to eat woody material (ex: deer, elephants) most herbivorous dinosaurs were probably browsers.
grazers on land, grazers are animals able to ingest grasses and soft plants (ex: cattle); in the marine environment, grazers scrape or otherwise remove plants or microorganisms from hard surfaces (ex: gastropods)
suspension feeder bottom feeders or otherwise sessile organisms able to strain out microorganisms or edible debris from the water around the organism (ex: oyster)
filter feeder free-swimming organisms that depend on filtering microorganisms or edible debris from the water around the organism (ex: whale)
deposit feeder able to strain microorganism or edible debris from sediment ingested by the organism; the organism "eats" sediment and removes useful organic matter (ex: earthworms)
arboreal living in trees
aerial living in the air most of the time (ex: birds)
amphibious able to live successfully either in water or on land, although most amphibians must return to water frequently, or at least to reproduce
terrestrial living on the land surface (ex: most mammals)
subterranean spending all or most of the time under the surface (ex: moles)
benthonic living on or in the materials making up the bottom of a body of water
epifauna living on the actual bottom surface (ex: gastropods and craps)
infauna living under the actual bottom surface (ex: worms)
vagrant able to move freely on or within the bottom sediments (ie: crabs)
sessile attached or otherwise unable to move (ex: corals)
nektonic strong swimmers able to move freely and not needing to depend on currents (ex: fish)
planktonic organisms that either float or swim so poorly that they are at the mercy of water currents.
phytoplankton plants and plantlike organisms (ex: algae and diatoms)
zooplankton animal larvae, protozoans, etc.
bathymetry (water depth) includes a number of well-defined biologic zones
pelagic living within the water column
neritic living in shallow water near shore
oceanic living in the deep oceanic water depths
littoral in or around the edges of the sea
supralittoral living on the beaches or water's edge
sublittoral living seaward from the beach, generally considered the continental shelf area
bathyal beyond the edge of the continental shelf - includes the continental slope, but not the abyssal plain.
hadal the very deepest parts of the oceans (ex: bottoms of the deep oceanic trenches)
sub-atomics nucleus of an atom: proton/neutron/electron
atoms smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element large samples of one kind of atoms are called elements
elements a group of the same kind of atoms/bond with other elements to for chemical compounds
molecules two or more DIFFERENT atoms that have covalently bonded smallest component of a compound that has all the properties of the compound
compounds group of the same kind of molecules that have
organelle structures in cells that carry out distinct functions
cell (life begins) the smallest level at which all functions of life can be carried out by organisms
tissue a distinct area of an organ formed from a mass of similar cells and cell products
organ a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
organ system a group of inter-connected organs that have a specific collective function
organism a living entity that can act or function independently
population all organisms of the same species (plant, animal, or micro-organism) that coexist and interact (in time and space)
community all populations of different species (plants, animals, and micro-organisms) that coexist and interact (in time and space)
ecosystem communities interacting with their abiotic environment
biome ecosystems of the world characterized by similar dominant flora, fauna, and climate.
Created by: HORSKR10