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The Digestive System

The Digestive System Terms

Nutrient Substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential life processes.
Fat High energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and contain more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates.
Mineral : Nutrients that are needed by the body in small amounts and are not made by living things.
Calorie The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1O Celsius.
Cholesterol A waxy, fat-like substance found only in animal products. Very important to body cells and can build up on the walls of arteries.
Digestion The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
Carbohydrate Energy rich organic compounds, such as sugars and starches, which are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Also provide raw materials that are needed to make parts of cells.
Protein Large organic molecules that are needed for tissue growth and repair and also play a part in chemical reactions in cells.
Absorbtion The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system and into the blood.
Glucose A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body cells.
Amino Acid Small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
Saliva The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both chemical and mechanical digestion.
Fiber A complex carbohydrate found in plant foods that cannot be broken down into sugar molecules by the body.
Vitamin Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
Enzyme A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the bodies of living things.
Epiglottis A Flap of tissue that seals off the wind pipe and prevents food from entering.
Small Intestine The part of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion of food and most absorption of nutrients take place.
Villus Tiny finger shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the Small Intestine.
Esophagus The part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular.
Liver A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in processing digestive products, neutralizing toxins, and other.
Large Intestine The portion of the intestine that extends from the ileum to the anus. It forms an arch around the small intestine and includes the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Absorbs water.
Mucus A thick slippery substance created by the body.
Bile A substance created by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
Rectum The final section of the large intestine.
Peristalsis The wavelike muscular contractions of the alimentary canal or other tubular structures by which contents are forced onward toward the opening.
Gallbladder The small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.
Anus The opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body.
Stomach Muscular pouch located in Abdomen that expands to hold all the food that is swallowed.
Pancreas Triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine.
Created by: Louis/Max