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Int Sci Community Ec

community A group of populations living close enough together for potential interaction
species diversity a measure that combines the number of species in a community with the relative abundances of those species.
interspecific interactions Relationships between different species in the community
interspecific competition Two different species compete for the same limited resource
niche Sum of an organism’s use of biotic and abiotic resources
Interspecific competition occurs when the niches of two populations overlap
How does competition impact the carrying capacity of competing populations? lowers it
mutualism Interspecific relationship in which both species benefits from the relationship
predation Interspecific relationship in which one species attacks and eats the other species
adaptation a trait that helps an organism survive in its environment
herbivory Interspecific relationship in which an animal consumes plant material (not usually fatal to plant)
herbivory leads to diverse _____ in plants adaptations
A few defenses plants have against herbivory are spines, thorns, toxins
coevolution occurs when two or more different species evolve in response to each other
parasitism Interspecific relationship in which one species obtains its nutrients from the body of another.
host the organism that a parasite lives in or on
pathogen disease causing parasite
invasive species Non-native species that are introduced in new environments, spread far beyond the original point of introduction, and cause damage are called
Why are invasive species so destructive to a community? They may outcompete native species thereby reducing their population and disrupting the balance in the community
trophic structure A pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels
food chain Sequence of food transfer up the trophic levels
producers Support all other trophic levels by transforming the sun's energy into the chemical energy of organic molecules (sugar)
autotroph "self feeder"; an organism that can transform the sun's energy into organic molecules (plants, algae, cyanobacteria)
heterotroph "other feeder"; an organism that eats other organisms (animals, fungi, some protists & bacteria)
primary consumer an organism that eats producers
secondary consumer an organism that eats primary consumers
tertiary consumer an organism that eats secondary consumers
quaternary consumer an organism that eats tertiary consumers
detrivore / decomposer an organism that gets its energy from eating dead matter and or wastes
food web A network of interconnecting food chains
Only 10% of the energy in one tropic level is passed to the next
If 10 % of the energy in one trophic level is passed to the next level, what happens to the other 90% of the energy? it is used for cellular work and then released into the atmosphere as heat
If you wanted to conserve more energy in the ecosystem, what kind of food would you eat? plants
keystone species A species whose impact on its community is larger than its biomass or abundance indicates
disturbances Events that damage biological communities
Communities ____ drastically following a severe disturbance change
ecological succession A succession of change gradually replaces other species as each species responds differently to the changing environment
primary succession Begins in a virtually lifeless area with no soil
secondary succession When a disturbance destroyed an existing community but left the soil intact
primary succession takes longer than secondary succession because ____ must first form soil
ecosystem All the organisms in a community as well as the abiotic environment
Energy flows ____ an ecosystem. through
chemicals cycle ____ within an ecosystem. within
producer productivity The amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs
biomass Amount of living organic material in an ecosystem
biome that has the highest producer productivity algal beds and coral reefs
Ecosystems are supplied with a continual influx of energy from the ____ sun
Life depends on energy from the sun & the ____ of chemicals recycling
Organisms acquire chemicals as ____ and lose chemicals as ____ products nutrients; waste
biogeochemical cycles Cycle chemicals between organisms and the Earth
____ is the major ingredient of all organic molecules carbon
The return of CO2 to the atmosphere by ___ closely balances its removal by ____ respiration; photosynthesis
The carbon cycle is affected by burning ___ and ____ ____. wood; fossil fuels
Organisms require ____, among other molecules for nucleic acids, phospholipids, and ATP phosphorus
The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of ____ rock
Plants absorb phosphate ions in the ____ and build them into organic compounds soil
The nitrogen cycle depends on ____ bacteria
____ is an essential component of proteins and nucleic acids nitrogen
___ ___ converts nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into ammonium and nitrates plants can absorb from the soil nitrogen fixation
____ on the roots of plants carry out nitrogen fixation bacteria
Created by: szern