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Evolution

Pre AP Evolution

QuestionAnswer
Common Ancestor the most recent ancestral form or species from which to different species evolved
Fossil Record a term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils tha have been discovered, as well as the information derived from them
Biogeography study of the geographical distribution of living things
Anatomical Homologies morphological (form or structure) or physiological (function) similarities between different species
Molecular Homologies genes shared due to common ancestry (may be studied as proteins or amino acid sequences)
Developmental Homologies study of embryological developmentof living species that provides clues to the evolution of present-day organisms
Natural Selection Individuals with variations in traits that are more suited to their environment will survive to produce more offspring than other individuals. The favorable traits are passed on to later generations.
Adaptations any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fit to survive and multiply
Biodiversity degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem
Evolutionary mechansisms mutation, migration (gene flow), genetic drift, and natural selection
Genetic Drift the change in frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling
Gene flow the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
mutation a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein
evolution a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Occurs in a population; not an individual
artificial selection Human intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations
vestigial structure refers to an organ or part (for example, the human appendix) which is greatly reduced from the original ancestral form and is no longer functional or is of reduced or altered function
homology A state of similarity in structure and anatomical position but not necessarily in function between different organisms indicating common ancestry or evolutionary origin
analogy Structural or behavioural similarity in terms of functions between unrelated species or organisms but do not share a common ancestral or developmental origin
Differential Reproductive Success individuals in a population do not have equal chances of reproducing successfully
variation differences in traits (alleles) among organisms
heredity alleles for traits are passed from one generation to the next
phylogeny The evolutionary development of a species. Describes common ancestry.
converegent evolution A kind of evolution where organisms evolve structures that have similar structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being very dissimilar or unrelated
divergent evolution The process by which an interbreeding population or species diverges into two or more descendant species, resulting in once similar or related species to become more and more dissimilar
geographical isolation The physical separation of members of a population. Populations may be physically separated when their original habitat becomes divided. Limits a population's ability to move freely. Example: when new land or water barriers form.
directional selection Directional selection is a type of natural selection that favors one extreme phenotype over the average or other extreme.
disruptive selection Disruptive selection is a type of natural selection that selects against the average individual in a population; rare
stabilizing selection type of natural selection that favors the average individuals in a population.
speciation The evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones
Created by: Mrs.CooperHHS