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PSC 310 Midterm

TermDefinition
Unit of Analysis The Entity (Person, Organization, Jurisdiction, Country) we want to Describe
Systematic A consistant distortion of an empirical Measurement
Random A Haphazard, Chaotic Distortion of an Empirical Measurement
Reliability Extent is a consistant measure of Concept. Reliable measure gives same reading every time
Validity Extent it records the true value of the concept. Valid Measure provide clear link
Testretest Reliability The variation in results when the same individual repeats the same test over again.
Interitem Reliability Assesses the degree of consistency among the items in a scale
Face Validity A measure that appears to measure exactly that which it is meant to measure.
Construct Validity The relationship between the measure of a construct/concept and measures of other constructs
Units of Observation The unit upon which one collects or analyses data
Variables A logical set of Attributes or characteristics
Observation Recording nature to formulate and test Hypothesis
Ecological Fallacy Cant Assume from the aggregate that there was no change ion the individual level
Individual Fallacy A sweeping generalization about a single variable
Theory Conjecture about the causes of a phenomena
Hypothesis What we expect to observe based on theory
Null Hypothesis What we expect to observe based on theory
Independent Variable The Concept that causes the dependent variable
Dependent Variable The concept that you are trying to explain.
Generality/Generalizability A concept that applies to a general/wide class of phenomena
Parsimony The very unrealism of a model is what makes it useful
Deduction An inference where the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premise
Inductive theory Takes an observation and gets broader as it moves up into theory and inference.
Assumption Something taken for granted, Hypothesis, postulate, guess, conjecture, theory.
Deterministic A philosophical position that says everything happens, and while under these conditions, it is the only possible outcome.
Probabilistic Combining probability and deductive reasoning to exploit a structure.
Logical Causal Mechanism Theory Describes how X causes Y. Not only about ultimate prediction of X and Y
Endogeneity A correlation between the parameter and the error term.
Covariation Between X and Y When the two variables adjust together but are not directly related
Eliminating Confounding Variables Third variable problem
The 4 causal Hurdles Causal Mechanism Endogeneity or reverse causality
Multivariable Observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time.
Controlling for Variables A method to reduce confounding variations of a third variable that may also affect the dependent variable
Confounding Variables An extraneous variable that correlates to both the IV and the DV
Selection Effects The distortion of statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting data
Research Design How political Scientists test theories and Hypotheses
Obervational Design Researcher observe naturally occurring X & Y
Experimental Design Researcher Randomly Assigns value of X, Observes Y
Random Assignment Two treatment groups.
Classical Experiment - Pick IV & DV, - Pick Sample, - Randomly assign sample into treatment groups. - Pretest Whole sample on DV - Present IV - Compare two sets of DV measure
Conditioning Watch out a pretest can poison the well
Solomon Four Group Design A research design where two groups are at the status Quo and two groups are at the variable and on of each is pretested
Internal Validity How well a research design tested a causal relationship
External Validity Confidence that a causal relationship Identified in our cases that can be generalized
Drawbacks of Experimental Design Often Difficult to compare relative power of X and Y, In relation to other X's
Population vs. Sample An observational Study observe cases without attempting to impose a treatment
Cross Sectional Designs A method involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time
Time Series Designs An epidemiological design in which a single population group of defined size is studied over a period during which preventive or therapeutic interventions take place, with measurements of factors and variables of interest at specified time intervals.
Measurement Assigning a number or numerical value to a variable to plac it in a qualitative or quantitative research study
Reliablity Extent is a consistent measure of concept. Same readings everytime.
Content Validity The extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social construct.
Measurement Bias Results from poorly measuring the outcomes you are measuring.
Operationalization The process of clarifying a fuzzy set of data to make it more useful to a study.
Culturalists One that emphasizes the importance of culture when determining the cause of behavior
Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative research is more of a numerical base, while qualitative it how far those numbers go.
Selecting on the IV Selecting Cases according to the values of the independent variable that they take on
Selecting on the DV Selecting the data according to the results that they yield.
Most similar systems Compares very similar cases that only different in the dependent variable
Most different systems Compares very different cases that all have the same dependent variable
Method of Agreement If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree, is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon.
Method of Difference When two scenarios differ in one variable only but gain different results
Selection Bias A statistical Bias where there is an error in choosing the induvidual or group involved in a study
Most likely case studies The case that is most likely used to disprove a theory
Least Likely case Studies
Method of Comparison
Created by: 536462638