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Ch. 12 Vocabulary


Acidophiles bacteria that grow in acidic environment--
Aerobes bacteria that grow in the presence of oxygen
Alkalophiles bacteria that grow in alkaline environments (high pH)
Anaerobes bacteria that only grow in the absence of oxygen
Antagonism mutually harmful relationship between two organisms
Aseptic techniques 1-cover dishes to prevent bacteria from the air entering culture--2-sterilizing loop in flame before use
Autotrophs bacteria that use carbon dioxide from the air as a source of carbon
Auxotrophs bacteria that harbor mutagens so it can no longer make a given vitamin--vit. must be added to growth medium--parental org. grows fine without addition
Blood agar medium gen. used for isolation of human pathogens from body sites such as the throat--from sheep
Broths liquid media--solid media--broths solidified by addition of agar--melts at boiling temps.--sets at room temp. like gelatin
Brownian motion process in which molecules in solution are bouncing off each other
Chemoautotrophs bacteria that do not require sunlight/organic nutrients--use minerals/gases from air--energy from chemicals in rocks
Commensalism form of symbiosis that ocurs when org. A helps org. B--A is unaffected either for good/bad by org. B
Complex (nonsynthetic) media common brain-heart infussion broth media--contains extracts of beef heart and brain--exact chemical composition of media is not known
Defined (synthetic) media media consists of completely known chemicals
Differential media common--some contain amino acids & sugars--lactose with dye that changes color if acid is produced by culture--both types of org. grow--colonies of 1 type of org. are diferentiated by the color they produce as they metabolize the sugar
Diffusion molecules spread out--nutrient must diffuse to surface of microbe for absorption--microbe may swim to area containing higher concentrations of nutrients
Enriched medium if nutrients are known--can be added to brain-heart infusion broth
Extreme thermophiles bacteria growing around thermal vents--volcanic openings at ocean floor--boiling temps. and above
Facultative anaerobes bacteria that grow with or without oxygen
Fastidious organisms organisms that require vitamins or similar nutrients--appropriate vitamins must be added to culture organisms
Halophiles bacteria that grow in high salt conditions--ocean, Great Salt Lake
Heterotrophs bacteria that require their carbon source to already be in organic form--sugar or amino acids--
Mesophiles bacteria that grow best in warm temperatures--human pathogens are generally mesophilic
Methanogens bacteria that derive their energy from carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane gas--bubbles in swamps often methane produced by bacteria
Microaerophiles bacteria that require reduced levels of oxygen--less than 20% oxygen levels found in air
Mutualistic symbiosis when both populations need each other for a high quality of living
Normal flora organisms occupy a given habitat and are not harmful--also called commensals--on human tissues--native microbial forms that healthy individuals harbor--mouth, intestinal tract, skin, etc.
Obligate aerobes bacteria that absolutely require oxygen for growth
Obligate halophiles bacteria that cannot grow without a high concentration of salt
Osmotic (hydrostatic) pressure pressure due to water trying to reduce chemical gradient--inside cell sufficiently to rupture cytoplasmic membrane
Parasitism when symbiotic relationship is beneficial to one organism and harmful to the other
Petri dish normally constructed of plasic--about 4 inches in diameter with a removable cover
Photoautotrophs photosynthetic bacteria that can use the energy in light--like plants--to produce their own energy
Psychrophiles bacteria that grow best in cold temperatures
Selective media media that select for certain kinds of bacteria--allow some to grow while inhibiting others
Symbiosis bacteria that grow with each other in a community--sym:together-bios: living
Synergism total growth success of both (or more than 2) organisms is more than what would be if organisms grow independently
Thermoduric bacterium bacteria that can't grow at high temps, but is not killed at high temps for a short time
Thermophiles bacteria that grow best in hot temperatures
Created by: heatherlvn