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Resp Med-Surg BOCES

Respiratory

QuestionAnswer
What is a pneumonectomy? Removal of a lung
What is epitaxis? Nosebleed
What are s/s of pulmonary edema? Pink, frothy sputum, dependent edema, weight gain, cyanosis, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, restlessness
What is a pleural effusion? Collection of fluid in pleural space
What precautions are used when admitting a patient with TB? Airborne precautions, negative pressure room
What is a thoracentesis? Puncturing of the chest wall into the pleural space to drain fluid or air
What are s/s of lung cancer? Hemoptysis, dyspnea, fever, chills, wheezing, fatigue
What are s/s of laryngeal cancer? Hoarseness, pain that radiates to ears, dysphasia, enlarged cervical lymph nodes, dyspnea
How is TB diagnosed? AFB's x3
When should a nurse or resp therapist obtain a sputum sample? Early morning before meals
What is cor pulmonale? failure of the right side of the heart brought on by long-term high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle of the heart.
What are s/s of cor pulmonale? Shortness of breath or light-headedness during activity is often the first symptom. Fast, bounding heart beat,chest pain, dependent edema,distended neck veins,cyanosis
What could constant bubbling in the water seal chamber of chest tube drainage system indicate? Air leak between pt and water seal
S/S flail chest Inward movement of chest on inspiration, eneven respirations, severa chest pain, dyspnea,cyanosis, tachycardia, hypotension, shallow resp, tachypnea, monitor s/s and O2 SATs
Tx Flail chest Cough, deep breath, Pain meds, Bed rest, High Fowlers's, O2, monitor s/s and O2 SATs
S/S pneumothorax SOB, Asymetric resp, mediastinal shift, hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis, AMS, Change LOC, crepitis
Tx pneumothorax Pressure dressing over chest wound, O2,High Fowler's, chest tube, monitor s/s and O2 SATs
S/S Respiratory Failure Dyspnea, headache, AMS, restlessness, tachycardia, cyanosis, dysrythmis, decreased LOC
Tx Resp Failure Identify/Tx cause, O2, high Fowler's, deep breathing, bronchodiltors, prepare for mech vent
S/S ARDS Tachypnea, Decreased LOC, Dyspnea, Decreased breath sounds, deteriorating ABG's, hypoxemia resistant to O2 tx
Tx ARDS Diuretics and steroids, Tx cause, O2, High Fowler's, restrict fluid intake as prescribed, resp tx's as prescribed, prepare for mech vent
What is empyma? Pus in pleural space
What group of diseases comprises COPD? Emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis
What is the hypoxic drive associated with COPD? Stimulus to breath is low O2 instead of High CO2.
S/S COPD Productive cough, exertional dyspnea, wheezing, crackles, weight loss, barrel chest (emphysema), use of accessory muscles, cyanosis, clubbing of fingers, orthopnea
Nursing interventions COPD Monitor VS, Admin O2, resp tx as prescribed, assist P/T, monitor SATs, reposition, teach pursed-lip breathing, monitor sputum, suction prn, monitor weight, encorage small frequent meals/rest prior, High calories, encourage fluids, high Fowler's
Med Tx COPD Steroids, bronchodilators, mucolytics, antibiotics with infections
Teaching for COPD pts Smoking cessation, s/s hypoxia and infection, rest periods with activity and before meals, small frequent meals, proper diet, breathing techs, all meds and vaccines
What is status asthmaticus? Asthma attack that doesn't respond to bronchodilators and is life-threatening.
S/S pneumonia Fever, chills, decreased LOC, absence LS, productive cough (can be brown, green, yellow sputum).
What causes a pulmonary embolism? Thrombus from deep vein breaks free and travels through right side of heart and lodges in branch of pulmonary artery.
What is a lobectomy? Removal of lobe of lung
Describe post-op recovery for laryngectomy Partial - voice temp hoarse but preserved, able to swallow Radical - refer to speech therapy for possible voice restoration to lesser degree, able to swallow, permanent stoma, pencil/paper for communication immediate post-op, caution with swimming/shower
Post-op care for tonsillectomy Ice collar; no coughing, gargling or clearing throat; progress diet as tol - ice chips, popsicles; constant swallowing indicates bleeding
Tx epitaxis Direct pressure 10 minutes, pack loosely with gauze, cold compress to nose, suck on ice chips, tilt head forward, topical epinephrine promotes vasocronstriction, cuterize
S/S CF Salty-tasting skin, cough, frequent lung infections, SOB, poor growth/weight, greasy/bulky stool
How constitues a negative PPD (mantoux)? Less than 5mm swelling at site
What do antipyretics do? reduces fever
What do mucolytics do? Loosens/thins secretions (lungs)
What do corticosteroids do? Reduces inflammation and the bodies immune response. Similar to natural hormone cortisol produced by adrenal glands.
What do antitussives do? Suppress cough
What do antihistamines do? They block the ability of histamine to bind to receptors. Histamine causes a local reaction: swelling. Swelling in the nasal cavity causes mucus secretion. This response also causes hives )scattered skin swellings).
What do OTC's do for colds and pneumonia? OTC's reduce symptoms but do not cure
What do decongestants do? Constricts blood vessels thereby reduces swelling of mucous membranes. Contraindicated in hypertension, glaucoma and enlarged prostate.
What do bronchodilators do? Relaxes smooth muscle in bronchiole airway to open up passages. Constricts arterioles.
What are the recommendations by the CDC for pneumo vacs? Once before age 65 for populations at risk. Once over 65 for general population. If given prior to age 65, repeat after 65 with at least 5 year interval between vaccines.
S/S hypoxia Restlessness, tachycardia, drowsiness, confusion, irritability
Need to know for suctioning Hyperoxygenate, monitor O2 SATs, sterile procedure, no more than 3 passes, no more than 10 seconds each pass
What can be poor consequences of using nasal spray decongestants? Rebound stuffiness
S/S pulmonary embolism Pain and dyspnea, nursing assess O2 SATs and LS
Created by: shocklori